Слайд 2: Plan
General Notes on Word Stress. Types of Word Stress. Degrees of Word Stress. Placement of Word Stress. Common Rules of Word Stress in English. Functions of Word Stress.
Слайд 4: The Nature of Word Stress
Word Stress is a greater degree of prominence of a syllable or syllables as compared to the other syllables of the word
Слайд 5: The Nature of Word Stress
Scientists about Word Stress: D. Jones: Word Stress is the degree of force, which is accompanied by a strong force of exhalation and gives an impression of loudness. A. C. Gimson: English word stress or accent is a complex phenomenon, marked by the variations in force, pitch, quality and quantity.
Слайд 6: The Nature of Word Stress
Scientists about Word Stress: B. A. Bogoroditsky : Stress as an increase of energy, accompanied by an increase of expiratory and articulatory activity. S. F. Leontyeva : Word stress can be defined as the singling out of one or more syllables in a word, which is accompanied by the change of the force of utterance, pitch of the voice, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the sound which is usually a vowel.
Слайд 7: The Nature of Word Stress
The effect of prominence of the stressed syllable is achieved by a number of phonetic parameters: Pitch Loudness Length Vowel Quality These 4 factors usually work together in combination, but they are not equally important. The strongest effect is produced by pitch and length.
Слайд 8: The Nature of Word Stress
In the stressed syllable: the force of utterance is greater, which is connected with more energetic articulation; the pitch of the voice is higher, which is connected with stronger tenseness of the vocal cords and the walls of resonance cavity; the quantity of the vowel is greater, the vowel becomes longer; the quality of the vowel is different (in unstressed syllables it is usually narrow).
Слайд 9: The Nature of Word Stress
Word Stress is singling out of one or more syllables in a word, which is accompanied by the change of the force of utterance, pitch of the voice, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the sound, which is usually a vowel.
Слайд 11: Types of Word Stress
We distinguish the following types of Word Stress: dynamic (force) stress is achieved by greater force with which the syllable is pronounced (Russian, English, French, German); musical (tonic) stress is achieved through the change of pitch/musical tone (Japanese, Korean); quantitative stress is achieved through the changes in the quantity of the vowels, which are longer in the stressed syllables (Russian); qualitative stress is achieved through the changes in the quality of the vowel (Russian).
Слайд 12: Types of Word Stress
English Word Stress is traditionally defined as dynamic, but in fact, the special prominence of the stressed syllables is manifested not only through the increase of intensity, but also through the changes in the vowel quantity, consonant and vowel quality and pitch of the voice.
Слайд 14: Degrees of Word Stress
The syllables in a word are characterized by different degrees of prominence. There are as many degrees of stress in a word as there are syllables. In English there are 3 degrees of stress : primary (strong, main, principal); secondary (half-stressed, half-strong); weak (unstressed).
Слайд 15: Degrees of Word Stress
In American English there are 4 degrees of stress : primary (strong, main, principal); secondary (half-stressed, half-strong); tertiary (on the last but one syllable in the words with suffixes -ary, -ory, -ony : ´ dictio ˏ nary. weak (unstressed).
Слайд 16: Degrees of Word Stress
In transcription stress is indicated by placing the stress mark before the symbol of the first sound of the stressed syllable. Primary stress is marked by a raised short vertical stroke and secondary stress is marked by a lowered one: examination [ɪg ˏ zᴂmɪ ´ neɪʃ(ǝ)n]
Слайд 18: Placement of Word Stress
According to its placement in a word, stress can be: fixed free shifting
Слайд 19: Placement of Word Stress
Fixed (the position of the word stress is always the same, it is restricted to a particular syllable): in French (the last syllable), in Finnish and Czech (the first syllable), in Polish (the last but one syllable).
Слайд 20: Placement of Word Stress
Free (the location of the word stress is not confined to a specific position, it can fall on any syllable of the word): English, Russian, Italian, Greek, Spanish, etc.
Слайд 21: Placement of Word Stress
Shifting (the word stress can change its position in different forms of the word and its derivatives): ´ music - mu ´ sician
Слайд 22: Placement of Word Stress
To define the position of word stress it is necessary to take into account a number of factors : phonological structure of the syllable; the number of syllables in a word; morphological factor; the part of speech the word belongs to; the semantic factor.
Слайд 23: Placement of Word Stress
The phonological structure of the syllable is related to the status of a particular syllables in terms of the degree of sonority. The sounds that possess a greater degree of sonority contribute to the greater prominence of the syllable. A syllable is strong when it contains a long vowel or a diphthong or a short vowel followed by two consonants: a ´ rrive - de ´ velop
Слайд 24: Placement of Word Stress
The number of syllables in a word influences the number of stresses and the position of stress. There are stress patterns typical of two-syllable words, three-syllable words and so on. In multi-syllable words there appears secondary stress.
Слайд 25: Placement of Word Stress
Morphological factor shows that in complex words the placement of stress depends on the type of suffix. Suffixes are divided into: stress-neutral (which do not affect the stress placement in the stem); stress-fixing (which influence stress in the stem); stress-attracting (which carry stress themselves).
Слайд 26: Placement of Word Stress
stress-neutral (-al, -able, -en, - ful, - ing, - ish, -less, - ness, - ly, - ment ): ´ comfort – ´ comfortable ; stress-fixing (-ion, - ic, - ity, - ial, - ive ): ´ curious - curi ´ osity ; stress-attracting (- ade, - eer, - ee, - esque, - ette, - ain ) : ˏ refu ´ gee, ˏ ciga ´ rette.
Слайд 27: Placement of Word Stress
The grammatical category the word belongs to: ´contrast – to con´trast ´habit – ha´bitual ´music – mu´sician ´insult – to in´sult ´record – to re´cord ´present – to pre´sent
Слайд 28: Placement of Word Stress
The semantic factor (for compound words and words with the so-called separable prefixes). The majority of such words have two equally strong stresses, both stressed parts are considered to be of equal semantic importance: compound adjectives: ´ hard- ´ working, ´ blue- ´ eyed, verbs with post positions : ´ sit ´ down, ´ take ´ off, numerals from 13 to 19: ´ four ´ teen, ´ six ´ teen.
Слайд 30: Common Rules of Word Stress
Two-syllable words (verbs, adjectives, adverbs): the second syllable is stressed if it contains a long vowel or a diphthong, or if it ends with more than one consonant: a ´ pply, a ´ ssist. But! ´ hone st. the first syllable is stressed if the final syllable contains a short vowel and one (or no) final consonant: ´ enter, ´ open. Two-syllable words (nouns): the first syllable is stressed if the second syllable contains a short vowel: ´ money ; the second syllable is stressed if the second syllable contains a long vowel or a diphthong : es ´ tate.
Слайд 31: Common Rules of Word Stress
Three-syllable words (verbs): the last but one syllable is stressed if the last syllable contains a short vowel and ends with one consonant: de ´ termine. the final syllable is stressed if it contains a long vowel or a diphthong, or ends with more than one consonant: enter´tain.
Слайд 32: Common Rules of Word Stress
Three-syllable words (nouns, adjectives): the middle syllable is stressed if the syllable preceding the final syllable contains a long vowel or a diphthong, or if it ends with more than one consonant: di ´ saster ; the first syllable is stressed if the final syllable contains a short vowel and the middle syllable contains a short vowel and ends with not more than one consonant: ´ cinema ´insolent
Слайд 33: Common Rules of Word Stress
Words with prefixes: in words with prefixes the primary stress typically falls on the syllable following the prefix: im ´ possible, re ´ call ; in words with prefixes with their own meaning, the place of secondary stress is on the prefix: ˏ ex- ´ minister. in prefixal verbs which are distinguished from similarly spelt nouns and adjectives, the second syllable is stressed: to in ´ crease – ´ increase.
Слайд 34: Common Rules of Word Stress
Words with suffixes: suffixes -esce, -esque, -ate, -ize, -fy, -ette, -ique, -ee, -eer, - ade have stress on themselves or the preceding syllable: ˏ mari ´ nade, ˏ specia ´ lize ; suffixes -ical, -ic, -ion, -ity, -ial, -cient, -iency, -eous,-ual, -uous, -ety, -itous, -ive, -ative, -itude, -ident, -inal, -wards have stress on the preceding syllable: eco ´ nomic, ma ´ jority.
Слайд 35: Common Rules of Word Stress
Words of 4 or more syllables: The stress is on the antepenultimate syllable (third from the end): e ´ mergency his ´ torical
Слайд 36: Common Rules of Word Stress
Compound words: The first element is stressed when: Compounds are written as one word : ´ bedroom. Nouns are compounded of a verb and an adv.: ´ make-up. The second element is stressed when: Food items have the first element which is of a material used in manufacturing the whole : ˏ apple ´ tart. Parts of the house are implied : ˏ front ´ door.
Слайд 37: Common Rules of Word Stress
Compound words: The first element is stressed when: Adjectives with past participle characterize people : ˏ thick- ´ skinned. Nouns ending in -er, -ing are followed by adverbs : ˏ passer ´ by. The first element of compounds is a number: second- ´ class, three - ´ wheeler. Compound function as an adverb : head- ´ first.
Слайд 38: Common Rules of Word Stress
The most common types of English stress pattern ´_ _ (´after) _´_ (be´fore) ´_ _ _ (´family) _´_ _ (im´portance) Some words have 2 variants of stress: ki ´ lometer – ´ kilometer
Слайд 41: Functions of Word Stress
The constitutive function: word stress organizes the syllables into a word The recognitive ( identicatory ) function: word stress makes it possible to identify and recognize a word in the chain of speech. The distinctive function: word stress is capable of differentiating the meaning of words or their forms: ´ import - im ´ port.
Слайд 42: Questions:
What is WORD STRESS? What types of word stress do you know? How does stress perform constitutive, distinctive and recognitive function? What is the terminology suggested by different authors to distinguish between different degrees of word stress? What factors determine the place of word stress?
Слайд 43: Literature
Леонтьева С.Ф. Теоретическая фонетика современного английского языка (на англ. яз.) /С.Ф. Леонтьева.- М., 2002. – 336 с. Соколова М.А. Практическая фонетика английского языка /М.А. Соколова. – М.: Гуманит. изд. центр ВЛАДОС, 1997. – 384 с. O’Connor L.D. Phonetics /L.D. O’Connor. Penguin, 1977. Sokolova M.A. English Phonetics. A theoretical course /M.A. Sokolova. M., 1996. – 286 p. Vassilyev V.A. English Phonetics: A theoretical Course /V.A. Vassilyev. M., 1980. – 323 p.