Первый слайд презентации: What is landscape design ?
FULFILLED BY STUDENT : DROBILENKO OLGA D/M-19-1-0
Слайд 2: What is landscape design ?
Landscape design is an art that is located at the intersection of three areas: architecture, crop production and cultural history. In addition, landscape design refers to practical actions for landscaping and landscaping. What is landscape design ?
The design and layout of the site The most important point and the first stage is, of course, the design and layout of the territory. It is necessary to think over and draw up a plan for the placement of all objects on paper. 3
Plant growing The design process also takes into account the terrain, its climatic features, and soil characteristics. This makes it possible to choose the combinations of green spaces that will develop well in the conditions of a particular site, and at the same time will fit harmoniously into the space, which is also important. 4
History of culture It has a great influence when creating themed gardens and compositions. For example: Japanese gardens, Chinese gardens, country-style composition, etc. Here you need to know the features of the culture in which the composition is created, its philosophical trends and directions. 5
Слайд 6: Landscape design elements
Today, the variety of elements allows you to create truly heavenly landscapes. Each case may have its own thematic elements, but the main groups that make up the" base " for design are the following:
The buildings themselves-they form the center of the design project ; Grass seed coating are formed from different kinds of herbs; Green spaces – trees, shrubs, flowers, as well as entire ensembles in the form of flowerbeds, tents, rock gardens, rockeries, etc.; Various water elements – a stream, pond, fountain, pool, mini-waterfall; Driveways and platforms ; Small architectural forms-gazebos, benches, arches, pergolas; * Small decorative elements – musical pendants, lamps, figures of animals and fairy-tale characters, various sculptures; Various technical components, such as lighting, irrigation systems, and the like. 7
8 Green spaces Green spaces are a collection of woody, shrubby, and herbaceous plants on a specific territory. The basis and main background of all plantings of landscape design is a lawn or lawn covering. They differ in : English lawn -made up of sedge and related grasses; has a correct, trimmed, but somewhat unnatural appearance, quickly "bothers" the eye, is more suitable for industrial, business and professional sports sectors. Moorish lawn -in addition to herbs, it includes wild flowers, has an asymmetric and quite bright, elegant appearance, mows only a couple of times a year, is more suitable for private sector buildings with individual planning for recreational and entertainment purposes.
Bushes Bushes are plants of average height, usually no more than a meter. They have hard and flexible stems that begin to branch near the ground. Usually shrubs grow in arid and hot areas, and therefore many of them have small and tough leaves, from which moisture does not evaporate so quickly, and roots that go deep into the ground are able to extract water from the lowest layers of the soil, where it is preserved during a drought. 9
Trees A tree is a life form of woody plants with a single, distinct, perennial, woody to varying degrees, continuing throughout life, branched (except for palm trees) main axis-the trunk 10
Reservoirs When creating a reservoir, the materials from which it is made play a special role. The main materials used for creating reservoirs are: polyethylene, fiberglass, PVC film, butyl rubber. 11
Streams and cascades A stream is a small watercourse, usually from several tens of centimeters to several meters wide. Usually the length of the stream does not exceed several kilometers, and the depth rarely exceeds 1.5 meters. 12
Fountains A fountain is a structure that serves as a base or frame for water jets that flow up or down. Initially, fountains were built mainly only as a source of drinking water. Then the combination of moving water with architecture, sculpture and green spaces became one of the means of creating various solutions in architecture and landscape art. Fountains were a favorite decoration of city squares in ancient and medieval Western European cities, in the countries of the Near and Middle East, and in India. In the 16th and 18th centuries. grandiose fountain systems were created in villas and Palace and Park complexes. Modern fountains are given a decorative character, which is enhanced by electric lighting and music in the evening hours. 13
Organization of lighting Creating landscape lighting begins with a plot plan where all the dimensions are specified and applied: frequently visited places, points of attraction, places that should be highlighted (paths, steps, bridges, benches), points of power supply. There are several basic techniques for landscape lighting : * illumination from the top down * illumination from the bottom up * path lighting (pedestrian paths, driveways ) * back light (used for creating silhouettes, shadows ) * spot lighting (used to attract attention ) * underwater lighting 14