Презентация на тему: 1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written

1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written
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1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written variety of language and its peculiarities.

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STYLISTIC CLASSIFICATION OF THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY Lecture 3

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The word-stock of the English language is divided into three main layers: the literary layer, the neutral layer and the colloquial layer.

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The literary vocabulary consists of the following groups of words: 1. common literary; 2. terms and learned words; 3. poetic words; 4. archaic words; 5. barbarisms and foreign words; 6. literary coinages including nonce-words.

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The colloquial vocabulary falls into the following groups: 1. common colloquial words; 2. slang; 3. jargonisms; 4. professional words; 5. dialectal words; 6. vulgar words; 7. colloquial coinages.

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The common literary, neutral and common colloquial words are grouped under the term standard English vocabulary. Other groups in the literary layer are regarded as special literary vocabulary and those in the colloquial layer are regarded as special colloquial (non-literary) vocabulary.

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Standard English vocabulary Neutral words are used in both literary and colloquial language Common literаry words are chiefly used in writing and in polished speech. Common colloquial words are always more emotionally coloured than literary ones.

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kid – child – infant father – parent – daddy associate – chap – fellow get out – go away – retire proceed – go on – continue teenager – boy (girl) – youth (maiden) start – get going – commence

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SPECIAL LITERARY VOCABULARY Terms belong to the style of language of science. But they may as well appear in other styles – in newspaper style, in publicistic and practically in all other existing styles of language.

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SPECIAL LITERARY VOCABULARY b) Poetic and Highly Literary Words are used to create the special elevated atmosphere of poetry. Sometimes they are used for expressing irony.

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SPECIAL LITERARY VOCABULARY с) Archaic, Obsolescent and Obsolete Words Obsolescent words are in the stage of gradually passing out of general use: the pronouns thou and its forms thee, thy and thine ; the corresponding verbal ending -est and the verb-forms art, wilt ( thou makest, thou wilt ); the ending -(e)th instead of -(e)s ( he maketh ) and the pronoun ye.

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SPECIAL LITERARY VOCABULARY с) Archaic, Obsolescent and Obsolete Words Obs о lete words are those that have already gone completely out of use but are still recognized by the English-speaking community: e. g. methinks ( = it seems to me ); nay ( = no ).

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SPECIAL LITERARY VOCABULARY с) Archaic, Obsolescent and Obsolete Words Archaic words are no longer recognizable in modern English, words that were in use in Old English, e. g. troth ( = faith ); a losel (= a worthless, lazy fellow ). Archaic words are used in the creation of a realistic background to historical novels.

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SPECIAL LITERARY VOCABULARY d) Barbarisms and Foreignisms are words of foreign origin which have not entirely been assimilated into the English language. Most of them have corresponding English synonyms; e. g. chic (= stylish ); bon mot (= a clever witty saying ); en passant (= in passing ); ad infinitum (= to infinity ) and many other words and phrases. Barbarisms and foreign words are used in various styles of language, but are most often to be found in the style of belles-lettres and the publicistic style.

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SPECIAL LITERARY VOCABULARY e) Literary Coinages (Including Nonce-Words) Neologism is defined as “a new word or a new meaning for an established word.” Examples are numerous: musicomedy ( music+comedy ); cinemactress ( cinema+actress ); and the already recognized blends like smog ( smoke+fog ); chortle ( chuckle+snort ). Such words are called blends. Another type of neologism is the nonce-word, i.e. a word coined to suit one particular occasion: "You're the bestest good one – she said – the most bestest good one in the world." (H. E. Bates) “ Sevenish ” ( around seven o'clock ); “ morish ” ( a little more ) (A. Christie).

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SPECIAL COLLOQUIAL VOCABULARY a) Slang language of a highly colloquial type considered as below the level of standard educated speech, and consisting either of new words or of current words employed in some special sense

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SPECIAL COLLOQUIAL VOCABULARY a) Slang to take stock in—'to be interested in, attach importance, give credence to' bread-basket—'the stomach' (a jocular use) to do a flit—'to quit one's flat or lodgings at night without paying the rent or board' rot –'nonsense!' the cat's pyjamas—'the correct thing'

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SPECIAL COLLOQUIAL VOCABULARY b) Jargonisms is a recognized term for a group of words that exists in almost every language and whose aim is to preserve secrecy within one or another social group. The following jargons are well known in the English language: the jargon of thieves and vagabonds, generally known as cant ; the jargon of jazz people; the jargon of the army, known as military slang ; the jargon of sportsmen, etc.

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SPECIAL COLLOQUIAL VOCABULARY b) Jargonisms The word grease means 'money'; loaf means 'head'; a tiger hunter is 'a gambler'; a lexer is 'a student preparing for a law course'.

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SPECIAL COLLOQUIAL VOCABULARY b) Jargonisms The word grease means 'money'; loaf means 'head'; a tiger hunter is 'a gambler'; a lexer is 'a student preparing for a law course'.

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SPECIAL COLLOQUIAL VOCABULARY b) Jargonisms Jargonisms do not always remain on the outskirts of the literary language. Many words have overcome the resistance of the language lawgivers and purists and entered the standard vocabulary. Thus the words kid, fun, queer, bluff, fib, humbug, formerly slang words or jargonisms, are now considered common colloquial.

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SPECIAL COLLOQUIAL VOCABULARY c) Professionalisms are the words used in a definite trade profession or calling by people connected by common interests both at work and at home. Tin-fish (=submarine); block-buster (=a bomb especially designed to destroy blocks of big buildings); piper (=a specialist who decorates pastry with the use of a cream-pipe); a midder case (=a midwifery case); outer (=a knockout blow).

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SPECIAL COLLOQUIAL VOCABULARY d) Dialectal Words in the process of integration of the English national language remained beyond its literary boundaries, and their use is generally confined to a definite locality. Lass 'a girl or a beloved girl‘ lad 'a boy or a young man‘ daft 'of unsound mind, silly‘ fash 'trouble, cares'

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SPECIAL COLLOQUIAL VOCABULARY e) Vulgar Words or Vulgarisms 1) expletives and swear words which are of an abusive character, like 'damn', 'bloody', 'to hell', 'goddarn' and used now as general exclamations; 2) obscene words.

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Последний слайд презентации: 1 variant: Spoken variety of language and its peculiarities. 2 variant: Written

SPECIAL COLLOQUIAL VOCABULARY f) Colloquial Coinages (Words and Meanings) Colloquial coinages (nonce-words) unlike those of a literary-bookish character are spontaneous and elusive. This proceeds from the very nature of the colloquial words as such. Not all of the colloquial nonce-words are fixed in dictionaries or even in writing and therefore most of them disappear from the language leaving no trace in it. to be the limit – 'to be unbearable'

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