Первый слайд презентации: Valentine’s Day
The 14th of February is called Valentine’s Day. That is when every man and every woman thinks about his or her sweetheart.
The holiday is named after two among the numerous Early Christian martyrs named Valentine.
Слайд 4: History
Historians trace the origin of Valentine's Day to ancient Roman Empire. It is said that in the Rome of ancient times people observed a holiday on February 14th to honor Juno - the Queen of Roman Gods and Goddesses. The Romans also regarded Juno as the Goddess of Women and Marriage.
There are many legends about St. Valentine. Legends are stories that are handed down from the past. One of the costumes the young people liked was name-drawing. The names of the Roman girls were written on slips of paper and put into a jar. Each young man drew a slip. The girl whose name he drew was to be his sweetheart for a year.
Слайд 6: Traditions
In Italy young girl would stand at her window for half an hour before sunrise. If no one went by, she believed she would not be marred that year. If she saw a men pass, she thought she would marry him or someone who looked like him.
In Germany the girls planted onions with the names of young men. She put the onions in a corner near the fireplace. She thought she would marry the man whose onion sprouted first.
In England in the 1700s, women wrote men’s names on scraps of paper, rolled each in a ball of clay, and dropped them into water. The first paper that surface supposedly had the name of the woman’s true love.
A French princess, Madam Royal, named her palace ”The Valentine ”. She had grand valentine parties in the early 1600’s. There were dancing and name drawing/ the princess did not draw a name. She chose her own partner, but she made her guests draw names. Each knight gave flowers to the lady whose name he drew. He gave her flowers at each dance they attended that year.
Слайд 10: High Court of Love
Using the language of the law courts for the rituals of courtly love, a "High Court of Love" was established in Paris on Valentine's Day in 1400. The court dealt with love contracts, betrayals, and violence against women. Judges were selected by women on the basis of a poetry reading.
Слайд 11: Legend about St. Valentine
Valentine was a Bishop residing in Interamna in Italy in the Third Century. People adored Bishop Valentine and the fame of his holiness and miracles reached Rome. Valentine's was also linked with love because he is believed to be the first religious personage to oversee the celebration of marriage between a pagan man and a Christian woman. This Saint Valentine is believed to have been scourged, imprisoned and beheaded by Placidus, Prefect of Interanma.
Слайд 12: Valentines
The day is most closely associated with the mutual exchange of love notes in the form of "valentines." Modern Valentine symbols include the heart-shaped outline, doves, and the figure of the winged Cupid. Valentines
In the United States, the first mass-produced valentines of embossed paper lace were produced and sold shortly after 1847 by Esther Howland (1828-1904) of Worcester, Massachusetts. The English practice of sending Valentine's cards appears in Elizabeth Gaskell's Mr. Harrison's Confessions (published 1851).
Слайд 14: Valentines of the mid-19th and early 20th centuries
Esther Howland Valentine, circa 1850: "Weddings now are all the go, Will you marry me or no" Handwritten poem, "To Susanna" dated Valentine's Day, 1850 (Cork, Ireland) Comic Valentine, mid-19th century: "R stands for rod, which can give a smart crack, And ought to be used For a day on your back."
Слайд 15: Postcards, "pop-ups", and mechanical Valentines, circa 1900-1930
Valentine postcard, circa 1900-1910 "Pop-ups" create a three-dimensional effect when opened, circa 1900 A tiny 2-inch pop-up Valentine, circa 1920
Слайд 16: Black Americana and children's Valentines
Postcard, 1906 Children's Valentine in somewhat questionable taste, 1940-1950 Anthropomorphic Valentine, circa 1950-1960
The U.S. Greeting Card Association estimates that approximately one billion valentines cards are sent each year worldwide, making the day the second largest card-sending holiday of the year behind Christmas. The association estimates that women purchase approximately 85 percent of all valentines.
Tomorrow is Saint Valentine's day, All in the morning betime, And I a maid at your window, To be your Valentine. Then up he rose, and donn'd his clothes, And dupp'd the chamber-door; Let in the maid, that out a maid Never departed more. (William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act IV, Scene 5)