Слайд 3: Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology
Ancient Greeks Socrates Plato Aristotle
Слайд 4: Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology
Rene Descartes Francis Bacon John Locke Tabula Rasa (blank slate) Empiricism
Слайд 5: Psychology’s Roots Psychological Science is Born
Wilhelm Wundt (1879) University of Leipzig Reaction time experiment Credited with starting modern psychological experimentation
Слайд 6: Psychology’s Roots Thinking About the Mind’s Structure
Edward Titchener Structuralism introspection
Слайд 7: Psychology’s Roots Thinking About the Mind’s Function
William James Functionalism Mary Calkins Margaret Floy Washburn Experimental psychology
Слайд 9: Psychological Science Develops
Behaviorism John B. Watson B.F. Skinner “study of observable behavior”
Слайд 10: Psychological Science Develops
Humanistic psychology Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow Cognitive Neuroscience
Слайд 11: Psychological Science Develops
Psychology Science Behavior Mental processes
Слайд 12: Psychology’s Biggest Question
Nature – Nurture Issue Biology versus experience History Greeks Rene Descartes Charles Darwin Natural selection
Слайд 13: Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis
Levels of Analysis Biological Psychological Social-cultural Biopsychosocial Approach
Слайд 15: Psychological Approaches/Perspectives
Biological psychology Evolutionary psychology Psychodynamic psychology Behavioral psychology Cognitive psychology Humanistic psychology Social-cultural psychology
Слайд 18: Psychology’s Subfields
Psychometrics Basic Research Developmental psychology Educational psychology Personality psychology Social psychology
Слайд 19: Psychology’s Subfields
Applied Research Industrial/organizational psychology Human factors psychology Counseling psychology Clinical psychology Psychiatry
Слайд 20: Empiricism
= the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation.
Слайд 21: Structuralism
= an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind.
Слайд 22: Functionalism
= a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function – how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.
Слайд 23: Experimental Psychology
= the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method.
Слайд 24: Behaviorism
= the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
Слайд 25: Humanistic Psychology
= historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth.
Слайд 26: Cognitive Neuroscience
= the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
Слайд 28: Nature-Nurture Issue
= the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
Слайд 29: Natural Selection
= the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Слайд 30: Biological Psychology
= a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes.
Слайд 31: Evolutionary Psychology
= the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection.
Слайд 32: Psychodynamic Psychology
= a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.
Слайд 33: Behavioral Psychology
= the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning.
Слайд 34: Cognitive Psychology
= the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.