Первый слайд презентации: Types of Intonation
Done by : Segizbaeva Zh. Bimakhanbet N.
Слайд 2: Plan
Introduction What is Intonation? FALLING INTONATION RISING INTONATION Conclusion
Intonation, in phonetics, the melodic pattern of an utterance. Intonation is primarily a matter of variation in the pitch level of the voice ( see also tone ), but in such languages as English, stress and rhythm are also involved. Intonation conveys differences of expressive meaning ( e.g., surprise, anger, wariness ). In many languages, including English, intonation serves a grammatical function, distinguishing one type of phrase or sentence from another. Thus, “Your name is John,” beginning with a medium pitch and ending with a lower one (falling intonation), is a simple assertion; “Your name is John?”, with a rising intonation (high final pitch), indicates a question.
In general, linguistic distinguish several main types of English intonation. The 2 basic types are: FALLING INTONATION RISING INTONATION Other types of intonation include: High fall, low fall, fall-rise, high rise, medlevel rise, low rise.
FALLING INTONATION: Falling intonation is the most common type of standard unemphatic intonation in English. It is used for asking and giving information in normal, quiet, unempatic style. Sounds more categorical, confident and convincing than rising intonation. Standard falling intonation in English falls stronger and deeper than standard falling intonation in Russia. STANDARD PATTERN: Falling intonation is used on the last stressed syllable of the sentence in: Statements( declarative sentence): We live in Moscow. He doesn’t have a CAR. Special questions: Where do you LIVE? Commands ( imperative sentence ): STOP it! Sit DOWN. Exclamatory sentence : What a wonderful surprise! The last part of alternative question ( after “or”): Do you want TEA or COFEE? Tag question( When the speaker is sure that the answer will be “ yes”): You LIVE here, don’t you?( the speaker is sure and expects the answer “yes”)
STANDARD PATTERNS : Rising intonation is used in: General questions: Was she glad to SEE him? Dependent or introductory parts of sentences: If he CALLS, ask him to COME. The first part of alternative questions ( before “or”) : Would you like an APPLE or a PEARL? Direct address: SIR, you dropped your NOTEbook. Enumerating items in a list: She bought bread, cheese and tomatoes. Tag questions ( When the speaker is not sure that the answer will be “yes” or wants your opinion):It’s a beautiful TOWN, ISN’T it? (The speaker thinks that the town is beautiful but asks for your pinion and confirmation.)
Последний слайд презентации: Types of Intonation: Conclusion
Intonation is the melody of the sentence. Intonation is created by changes in the pitch of the voice (the voice goes higher and lower; remains on the same level; rises or falls), by sentence stress (strong stress on important words; weak stress or no stress on less important words), and by rhythm (stressed syllables occur at more or less equal intervals). The most important functions of intonation are to distinguish types of sentences (statements, questions, commands, requests) and to divide sentences into sense groups. Also, intonation allows speakers to express various emotions.