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1 Topic 2 Topic 3 Topic 4 Topic 5 Topic Compiled: Takhatbek Aigerim defectologist 2 course Shizophrenia
Негізгі бет Schizophrenia is a mental illness characterized by abnormal behavior, strange speech, and a decreased ability to understand reality Other symptoms may include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices that do not exist, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and lack of motivation. People with schizophrenia often have additional mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, or substance-use disorders. Symptoms typically come on gradually, begin in young adulthood, and, in many cases, never resolve.
Басы … Негізгі бет The causes of schizophrenia include environmental and genetic factor Possible environmental factors include being raised in a city, cannabis use during adolescence, certain infections, the age of a person's parents, and poor nutrition during pregnancy Genetic factors include a variety of common and rare genetic variants. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior, the person's reported experiences and reports of others familiar with the person. During diagnosis, a person's culture must also be taken into account. As of 2013, there is no objective test. Schizophrenia does not imply a "split personality" or dissociative identity disorder, conditions with which it is often confused in public perception.
Негізгі бет Genetic Estimates of the heritability of schizophrenia are around 80%, which implies that 80% of the individual differences in risk to schizophrenia is associated with genetics.These estimates vary because of the difficulty in separating genetic and environmental influences and some have labeled these estimates inaccurate. The greatest single risk factor for developing schizophrenia is having a first-degree relative with the disease (risk is 6.5%); more than 40% of monozygotic twins of those with schizophrenia are also affected [ 59] Results of candidate gene studies of schizophrenia have generally failed to find consistent associations, and the genetic loci identified by genome-wide association studies as associated with schizophrenia explain only a small fraction of the variation in the disease.
Негізгі бет Environment Environmental factors associated with the development of schizophrenia include the living environment, drug use, and prenatal stressors. Maternal stress has been associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, possibly in association with reelin Maternal nutritional deficiencies, such as those observed during a famine, as well as maternal obesity have also been identified as possible risk factors for schizophrenia. Both maternal stress and infection have been demonstrated to alter fetal neurodevelopment through pro-inflammatory proteins such as IL-8 and TNF
Негізгі бет Epidemiology First degree relatives have 10 time greater risk of developing the disorder. Up to 50 have substance abuse and 90 have smoking. More prevalent in low socio Economices. High frequent hospitalization.
Негізгі бет -unresponsive, fixed posture, refusal to move or talk -stupor associated with marked rigidity or flexibility - overactivity with stereotypy
Негізгі бет Cognitive Symptoms : Difficulties in concentration and memory Disorganized thinking Slow thinking Difficulty understanding Poor concentration