Первый слайд презентации: Thomas Becket
(also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London and later Thomas à Becket[note 1] (21 December 1119 or 1120 – 29 December 1170), was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion.
The head of the Catholic Church was the pope based in Rome. The most important position in the church in Medieval England was the Archbishop of Canterbury and both he and the king usually worked together.
For people in England, there was always the real problem – do you obey the king or the pope ? In fact, this was rarely a problem as both kings and popes tended to act together as both wanted to remain powerful. On two occasions they fell out – one involved the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, and the other Henry VIII.
In 1162, Henry II, king of England, appointed Thomas Becket, as Archbishop of Canterbury. This was the most important religious position in England. No-one was surprised by Henry’s choice as both he and Thomas were very good friends.
When Henry was in France sorting out problems there, he left Becket in charge of England – such was his trust in him. Becket became Henry’s chancellor – the most important position in England after the king. When the Archbishop of Canterbury died in 1162, Henry saw the chance to give his close friend even more power by appointing him Archbishop of Canterbury – the most important church position in England.
Henry hoped that by appointing his good friend Becket, he might have more of a say in how the Church punished offenders. He hoped that Becket would do as he wished and toughen up the sentences passed out by Church courts. Becket did not want the job. As chancellor, he was as powerful as he wished to be. He also had an excellent relationship with Henry, and he did not want to spoil this..
In 1164, the first sign of a split between Henry and Thomas occurred. Henry passed a law which stated that any person found guilty in a Church court would be punished by a royal court. Becket refused to agree to this, and knowing of Henry’s temper, he fled abroad for his own safety.
It took six years before Becket felt safe enough to return to England. However, they quickly fell out again when Becket asked the pope to excommunicate the Archbishop of York who had taken sides with the king. Henry was furious when he found out what Becket had done. Four knights heard what Henry had shouted and took it to mean that the king wanted Becket dead. They rode to Canterbury to carry out the deed. The knights were Reginald FitzUrse, William de Tracey, Hugh de Morville and Richard le Breton. On December 29th 1170 they killed Becket in Canterbury Cathedral. After killing him, one of the knights said “Let us away. He will rise no more.”
On 29 December 1170, the knights met the Archbishop. Entering Canterbury Cathedral, the knights found Thomas Becket preparing to hold an evening service. They demanded that he appear before the king's court, and when they refused, they killed the Archbishop on the steps of the altar. After this, the murderers fled from the Cathedral
Слайд 10: After Becket's death
This massacre shocked Europe. The Pope beatified Becket, and his cult quickly spread to various countries. As a sign of repentance, Henry, barefoot, in the clothes of a pilgrim, came to worship at his grave. And every December 29 a prayer is heard in English churches: "God, you gave the Holy Martyr Thomas Becket such greatness of soul that he gave his life for the truth; help us also, at his intercession, to lay down our life on earth for Christ, so that we may find it in heaven»…