Первый слайд презентации: Theory of P hylembryogenesis ; Phylogenesis of Avian Nervous System & Developmental Nervous System disorder of Human
Course Students Sinchan Poojary & Sandip K umar Mondal Scientific Leader Svetlana Smirnova
Слайд 3: 1. Phylembryogenesis
A theory put forward by Russian palaeontologist Severtsov, postulating that phylogenetic changes in organisms are conditioned by ontogenetic alterations, in that certain events are added, modified or deleted in the development of an embryo based on the events of ancestral development.
According to the theory of A.N.Severtsov Phylembryology : Changes resulting from genotyepe adjustment during embryonic development and having a phylogenetic significance. Adjustment of the genotype, which can occour through mutation and natural selection, not only at the end of the ontogeny asconsidered by Heckel,but also primary, middle,and end stages of ontogeny Changes that can actively influence the evolution of the species
Слайд 5: 2. DEVIATION
The theory of phylembryogeny rests mainly on the concept of the predominance of ontogenetic change over phylogenetic (evolutionary) change. If the course of ontogeny did not change, organisms would not differ from their ancestors.One of the most important mode of phylembryology is deviation ( changes in the middle stage)
Слайд 6: Examples
Development of scales in Reptiles ; initially the process goes according to phylogenesis (partial recapitulation), and in the middle of morphogenesis muted genes interfere with the work and the course takes another direction.
Слайд 8: 3. AVIAN BRAIN STRUCTURE
The avian brain includes : 1) medulla - part of the brainstem 2) neurons that help control heart rate, respiration, & blood pressure. 3)optic lobe - part of the midbrain; relatively large in birds compared to other vertebrates (reflecting the importance of vision for most birds)
Слайд 9: 4. SENSES
The difficulty of defining or measuring intelligence in non-human animals makes the subject difficult to study scientifically in birds. In general, birds have relatively large brains compared to their head size. The visual and auditory senses are well developed in most species, though the tactile and olfactory senses are well realized only in a few groups. Birds communicate using visual signals as well as through the use of calls and song. The testing of intelligence in birds is therefore usually based on studying responses to sensory stimuli.
Слайд 10: 5. MEMORY CAPABILITY
Scientists have discovered that the common pigeon actually has an astonishingly good long-term memory. In tests they found a single bird can memorise 1,200 pictures "Pigeons are very visual animals and we knew they had good memories, but we didn't know they were this good," said Dr Fagot.
Слайд 11: 6. Visual capacity
The optic lobes of a bird or reptile are also part of the midbrain. T he optic lobes of a bird are much larger than the optic lobes of a lizard. We know that birds have the best vision of any vertebrates. The large optic lobes of a bird process the complex signals sent from the eye.
Слайд 12: 7. developemental Nervous system disorder of human
Alzheimers Disease A progressive disease that destroys memory and other important mental functions.Brain cell connections and the cells themselves degenerate and die, eventually destroying memory and other important mental functions.
Слайд 13: b) P arkinson’s disease
In Parkinson's disease, certain nerve cells (neurons) in the brain gradually break down or die. Many of the symptoms are due to a loss of neurons that produce a chemical messenger in your brain called dopamine. When dopamine levels decrease, it causes abnormal brain activity, leading to symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
Слайд 14: c) Cerebral palsy
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a person’s ability to move and maintain balance and posture. CP is the most common motor disability in childhood. Cerebral means having to do with the brain. Palsy means weakness or problems with using the muscles. CP is caused by abnormal brain development or damage to the developing brain that affects a person’s ability to control his or her muscles.
Слайд 15: d) Aphasia
Aphasia is an inability to comprehend or formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions. The major causes are a cerebral vascular accident (stroke), or head trauma, but aphasia can also be the result of brain tumors, brain infections, or neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia.
Слайд 16: e) Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
A numbness and tingling in the hand and arm caused by a pinched nerve in the wrist.Wrist anatomy, underlying health conditions, and patterns of hand use can contribute to carpal tunnel syndrome.
Слайд 17: f) Amytrophic lateral Sclerosis
ALS, is a progressive nervous system disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, causing loss of muscle control.ALS is often called Lou Gehrig's disease. ALS often starts in the hands, feet or limbs, and then spreads to other parts of your body. As the disease advances and nerve cells are destroyed, your muscles get weaker. This eventually affects chewing, swallowing, speaking and breathing.There's generally no pain in the early stages of ALS, and pain is uncommon in the later stages. ALS doesn't usually affect your bladder control or your senses.
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