Verbs are a class of words used to show the performance of an action (do, throw, run), existence (be), possession (have), or state (know, love) of a subject.
Verbs Finite Non- finite( Verbids ) Tense Aspect Number Mood Voice No tense Sometimes have aspect and voice No number No mood
State (stative) are not usually used in continuous aspect Dynamic Can be used in continuous aspect Be Have, t hink, weigh, do, go, repair, write, wash, watch, search, look, smell Have, own Know, think, suppose, understand, realise, believe, doubt, consider, agree Feel, smell, like, love Attract, look, sound weigh
Aspect Tense Present Past Future Simple I study English every day. The rose is beautiful. Two years ago, I studied English in England. Those flowers weren’t beautiful. Continuous I am doing my hometask now. I am leaving tomorrow morning. I was studying English when you called yesterday. Perfect I have done my task already. Before we moved to the U.S. we had sold our house. Perfect Continuous I have been doing the task for the whole week. By the time you arrived I had been studying for several hours already.
Continous Present am/is/are do ing Are you sleeping ? They are reading their books now. I am studying to become a doctor. I am meeting some friends after work. Past was/were doing While John was sleeping last night, someone stole his car. Sammy was waiting for us when we got off the plane. Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner. At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.
Perfect Perfect continuous Present Have done I have seen that movie twenty times Nobody has ever climbed that mountain Have you read the book yet? My English has really improved since I moved to Australia. Have been doing She has been working at that company for three years. Have you only been waiting here for one hour? Past Had done I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet. We had had that car for ten years before it broke down. Had been doing They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived. Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.
Exercise 15. Use the Past Indefinite or the Past Perfect instead of the infinitives in brackets. 1. Suddenly he (to grit) his teeth in angry exasperation. Not only he (to omit) to leave his card; he (to forget) to tell them who he (to be). 2. It (to be) perfectly true that he never (to take) the slightest interest in his clothes, a suit off the peg always (to serve) him excellently, (to cover) him, (to keep) him warm without elegance. 3. It (to be) nine o'clock and we (to come) to her room two hours before, as we (to do) often on those winter evenings. 4. At once Helen (to smile) at me; yet I (to see) that it (to be) an effort for her to clear her mind of what (to go) before. 5. Gideon (to wake) early that morning possibly because the ringing of the fire alarm (to be) in his mind most of the night. 6. He (to graduate) from Queen’s College before he (to take) his master’s degree at Christ Church, Oxford. 7. “What he (to say)? Tell us! Tell us!” He (to tell) them what he (to say) and what the rector (to say) and, when he (to tell) them, all the fellows (to fling) their caps and (to cry): “Hurroo!” 8. When he (to come back) to his seat his manner (to change). He (to be) gentle and kindly. 9. He (to see) he (to be) already further out than he (to hope) to be at this hour. 10. By the time Fenella (to take off) her coat and skirt and (to put on) her flannel dressing-gown, grandma (to be) quite ready. 11. No sooner we (to put down) our glasses than the waiter (to refill) them. 12. Inquiring for her at tea-time Soames (to leam) that Fleur (to be out) in the car since two.
Words and expressions used to speak about future Modal verbs Expressions Will, shall To speak about something unplanned, spontaneous, but highly probable To be going to to speak about an intention to do smth. in near future May To speak about not so probable future possibilities To be doing To speak about planned future might To speak about future possibilities with quite low degree of probability To be about to To speak about something what is going to happen very soon and with high degree of probability To be on the brink of, to be on the verge of To speak about something what is going to happen very soon and with very high degree of probability
Mood is one of the kinds of modality, which may be expressed both by lexical means (modal verbs (may, can, must, etc.) and modal words (perhaps, probably, etc.)). The category of mood presents the interpretation of the action by the speaker from the point of view of its relation to reality.
Indicative expressing real facts. Imperative expressing command, order, request. Subjunctive expressing something desirable, problematic, unreal etc
Direct moods Oblique moods Indicative Imperative Subjunctive I closed the door and went away. Close the door and go away! If I go away, I will close the door (possible future) If I were here the door would be open (impossible present) If I had gone away I would have closed the door (impossible past)
Smirnitsky’s system of moods includes six moods: The Indicative The Imperative Subjunctive I Subjunctive II The Conditional Mood The Suppositional mood
The Indicative mood Morphologically it’s the most developed system including all the categories of the verb. Semantically it’s a fact mood. It serves to present an action as a fact of reality. It’s the most objective of all the moods. It conveys minimum personal attitude to the fact: Ex. Water consists of oxygen and hydrogen. Indicative means "stating a fact." The indicative mood is a category of verb forms that we use to state facts. Ex: "Joe plays outside." (The speaker thinks it's a fact.) The Indicative has no special forms of expression – it is all the tenses in active and passive.
The Imperative mood The Imperative mood is used to express inducement to action, which means that the speaker considers the action as desirable. The use of the Imperative mood is restricted to only one communicative type of sentences - imperative sentences. Eg: "Go outside!" (This is a command.) Has no person, number, tense, aspect, it’s limited to one type of sentence only. – Usually a verb in the imperative sentences has no pronoun, but may be used in emotional speech. – e.g. You leave me alone! The Imperative mood expresses a command or a request to perform an action addressed to somebody, but not the action itself. It doesn’t actually denote a specific action it has no tense category; the action always refers to the future. The Imperative mood form coincides with the plain stem of the verb. e.g. – Come here! Sit down
The negative form is built by means of the aux. DO: E.g. Don’t be a fool. Don’t worry. Emphatic requests\commands : E.g. Do come and stay with us. Do be quiet. Commands and requests addressed to a second person. The imperative mood is used only in imperative sentences and can’t be used in questions.
1) Subjunctive I expresses synthetically a problematic action, which doesn’t contradict reality. E.g. He gave orders that we be present. 2) Subjunctive II expresses synthetically and analytically an unreal action. E.g. I wish you were not late. 3) The Conditional mood expresses analytically depended unreality: the realization of the action depends on some condition, which may not be expressed. E.g. It would be good to be here. 4) The Suppositional mood expresses analytically a problematic action, not contradicting reality. The realization of the action may depend on certain circumstances. E.g. Should you meet him, tell him to come The Suppositional and Subjunctive I almost coincide in meaning but differ in style and usage
Suppositional mood specializes in the expression of hypothetical actions. The comparison of such sentences as "If he turns up tell him to -wait for me" and "Should he turn up tell him to wait for me“ shows that both the verbal forms present the action as hypothetical but differ in the degree of certainty which is higher in the case of Present Indefinite Indicative
The Grammatical Category of Voice The category of voice is represented in Modern English by the opposition: loves – is loved, to love – to be loved, etc, and it shows whether the object is the doer of the action or its object. E. g. He opened the door. The door was opened (by him). The active voice is unmarked, the passive is marked in form and meaning. Some forms of the active voice find no parallel in the passive Future Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Perfect Continuous.
In addition to two voices three other voices have been suggested: 1) the reflexive – he addressed himself 2) the reciprocal – they greeted each other 3) the middle voice – the door opened.
Classification of verbs in relation to their ability to be used in Passive voice Passivized verbs Non-passivized Tell, give, call, watch, hear, write, prepare, buy Have, die, fail, belong, cost, resemble I gave him a book. Finally he failed and gave up. I was given a book. The book was given to me. The computer cost more than 20000 Rub. Jack called me. I was called.
Aspect Tense Present Past Future Simple I study English every day. English is studied every day. Two years ago, I studied English in England. English was studied in England 2 yrs. ago. The government will raise the taxes next year. The taxes will be raised next year Continuous I am doing my homework now. My homework is being done now. I was studying English when you called yesterday. English was being studied … Perfect I have done my task already. My task has been done already. Before we moved to the U.S. we had sold our house. The house had been sold before we moved to the USA By the time we move to the USA we will have sold the house. The house will have been sold … Perfect Continuous I have been doing the task for the whole week. The task has been done for the whole week.
Verbids (Non-Finites) The infinitive The gerund The present participle (I) The past participle (II)
The infinitive The infinitive of a verb is its basic form with or without the particle to : The infinitive without “to” is called bare infinitive ('do', 'be') The infinitive with “to” is called full (marked) infinitive ('to do', 'to be') The infinitive combines the properties of the verb with those of the noun, as a result it serves as the verbal name of a process.
The infinitive Passive Indefinite Passive (To be done) Perfect Passive (To have been done)
Functions in the sentence The infinitive performs the syntactic functions of : subject To err is human, to forgive is divine. object He promised to show us all of the island. predicative My advice for you is to visit a doctor. attribute There is nothing else to say Adverbial modifier It is too good a story to belive
The gerund The gerund, like the infinitive, combines the properties of the verb with those of the noun and gives the process the verbal name. In comparison with the infinitive the gerund reveals stronger substantive properties.
Functions in the sentence The gerund performs the syntactic functions of : subject Dancing is what she likes most. object I intend doing it tomorrow. attribute There were cries of greeting from a dozen voices Adverbial modifier Tom considered before answering.
The present participle The present participle serves as a qualifying-processual name. It combines the properties of the verb with those of the adjective and adverb. Functions in the sentence attribute I felt a bitter envy towards two boys walking along the path.
The past participle The past participle combines the properties of the verb with those of the adjective. The categorial meaning of the past participle is qualifying: it gives some sort of qualification to the denoted process. Functions in the sentence attribute You didn’t look so interested.