Презентация на тему: THE SPAN OF RUSSIAN EMPIRE

THE SPAN OF RUSSIAN EMPIRE
THE SPAN OF RUSSIAN EMPIRE
THE NORTH AREA The north stretched from the Gulf of Finland in the west to beyond the Urals in the east and from the White Sea south to about 60° L. AREA TYPE
THE SPAN OF RUSSIAN EMPIRE
GARRISONS
THE SPAN OF RUSSIAN EMPIRE
THE SPAN OF RUSSIAN EMPIRE
THE SPAN OF RUSSIAN EMPIRE
THE CENTER
Social Structure Of Russian Empire In 16 th Century
Church Landholding During 16 th Century
Span of Russian Empire During The 2 nd half of 16 th Century
Dynastic Apanges During Span of Russian Empire
Dynastic Succession During Span of Russian Empire
THE FRONTIER
THE FRONTIER
THE FRONTIER
THE SPAN OF RUSSIAN EMPIRE
1/18
Средняя оценка: 4.5/5 (всего оценок: 65)
Код скопирован в буфер обмена
Скачать (8216 Кб)
1

Первый слайд презентации: THE SPAN OF RUSSIAN EMPIRE

20LL5[a] THE SPAN OF RUSSIAN EMPIRE DIVYANSH BHAVYA PRIYANSHI VIDHI NIRAJ 1 ST GROUP

Изображение слайда
2

Слайд 2

THERE WERE THREE LARGE DIVISIONS : NORTH CENTRE FRONTIER

Изображение слайда
3

Слайд 3: THE NORTH AREA The north stretched from the Gulf of Finland in the west to beyond the Urals in the east and from the White Sea south to about 60° L. AREA TYPE OF LAND WATER BODIES

The north is land of taiga, a coniferous forest turning into tundra and permafrost as one goes north; In addition to the taiga’s acidic and leached soil, its marshiness and brevity of growing season make it inhospitable to agriculture. This was an area of forest exploitation and trade. From west to east included Karelia, centred around Lakes Onega and Ladoga and stretching north to the Kola peninsula. the Northern Dvina and Sukhona river basins Mezen and Pechora river basins Viatka, Vychegda, and Kama rivers

Изображение слайда
4

Слайд 4

Christianity came with Russian settlement but made few inroads among non East Slavs throughout this time. In the tundra band lived nomadic reindeer herdsmen, fishermen, and hunters. The Finno Ugric Lapps in Karelia and east of them the Nentsy who speak a Samoedic Uralic language. INGIGENOUS POPULATION URALIC LANGUAGE FAMILY

Изображение слайда
5

Слайд 5: GARRISONS

Founded at Tobolsk on the upper Irtysh river in 1587 and at Tomsk. Ggarrisons collected tribute from the native peoples:in north were the Nentsy, in south lived the Ostiaki and inland to the west between the Permians and the Ob river lived the Voguly.

Изображение слайда
6

Слайд 6

Since Novgorodian times the dominant social and political organization among East Slavs and the Finno‑Ugric population in the taiga lands from Karelia to Perm was the commune ( mir, volost ), composed of contemporary sources called ‘black’ or taxed peasants. Northern communes differed from the 19 th century Russian peasant commune where land and labour were collectively shared. the term ‘peasant’ particularly was inappropriate for this populace. B ecause members of this communes were not primarily farmers, but were fishers, traders, art isans, etc. Community of Northern Region

Изображение слайда
7

Слайд 7

Straddling the border between the north and the centre were the Novgorod and Pskov lands to the north‑west and the Beloozero and Vologda area north of Moscow. The north‑west, including Novgorod and Pskov remained a centre of Baltic trade in the 16 th century. The Beloozero and Vologda areas lay on active trade routes to the White Sea and were productive centres for fish, salt, and furs. In these various lands the Russian population outnumbered Finno‑Ugric speakers by the end of the century. the Beloozero and Vologda areas became, from the mid‑fifteenth century, magnets of energetic monastic colonization. DEVELOPMENT

Изображение слайда
8

Слайд 8

Monasteries such as the St Cyril and Ferapontov monasteries near Beloozero, the Spaso‑Prilutskii in Vologda, and the Solovetskii Monastery on the White Sea–expanded by taking over settled peasant lands and in the course of the 16 th century became major local political and economic powers. Although part of the Muscovite realm from the late 1400s, the north and north‑west remained distinct as regions. When Moscow adopted at mid‑century a new tax unit for arable land (the large sokha ), for example, these areas retained the smaller, Novgorodian unit of measure. DEVELOPMENT

Изображение слайда
9

Слайд 9: THE CENTER

The centre or ’Moscow region’in contemporary sources, differenciated from the north and southern borderlands by its relative ethnic homogeneity. By the early 16 th century,the centre stretched from beloozero and Volagda in the north to oka river and riazan lands in the south,its western bounds were the upper Volga tver lands. Its eastern ones lay just beyond the lower oka and its confluence with the Volga at nizhnii Novgorod. An extention of Europe plain that begins at the atlantic,the region has a mixed deciduous coniferous forest. The winters are long and cold (January mean temperature is -10.3degree c or 13.5 degree f). The populace supplemented its diet with food from the forests and income from Artician work. The growing season commensurately short ;because the soil is not particularly fertile,save for a triangle of loess north west of Vladimir,yields were at subsistence level. THE CENTER

Изображение слайда
10

Слайд 10: Social Structure Of Russian Empire In 16 th Century

The social structure in the centre was more complex than in the north. Settlement here was almost uniformly east Slavic,the indigenous finno ugric peoples having been assimilated by 16 th century. Most of The populance,whether urban or rural,was taxed. Peasants lived in small hamets and particised cultivation systems ranging from primitive slash burn to three field rotations. Depending upon population density and other factors. In 1450 most peasants were still free of landlord control.,but by the end of 16 th century virtually all of these ‘ black’peasants had been distributed to private landlords. The non taxpaying landholding strata were either military or eccilesiastical.the clerical populance was divided into black and white clergy.

Изображение слайда
11

Слайд 11: Church Landholding During 16 th Century

Church landholding increased at a phenomenal rate after 1450; particularly in the turbulent 1560s-70s landlords donated land in large amounts to monasteries,despite repeated legislation prohibiting such gifts. Secular landholders were all obliged to serve the Moscow grand prince as a part of a cavalry army. A few select families lived in Moscow and enjoyed hereditary privileges to a boyars, that is, counsellars of the grand prince. The landholding elite was not a corporate estate with judicial protection,but it did enjoy freedom from taxation,an almost claim to landownership and high status. Church Landholding During 16 th Century

Изображение слайда
12

Слайд 12: Span of Russian Empire During The 2 nd half of 16 th Century

Social group developed, primarily in the centre. Most secretaries came from lesser cavalry ranks. Situated socially between taxed &nontaxed populations were noncavalry army units & People who did not fit in those who refused to be caugh in webs of landlord’ contral. Most remarkable fact that centre was its juridical diversity. Much of land was exempt from grand prince’s government & taxation,a situation that rulers not only tolerated but used to their advantage. Span of Russian Empire During The 2 nd half of 16 th Century

Изображение слайда
13

Слайд 13: Dynastic Apanges During Span of Russian Empire

Similar to dynastic apanages were the holdings of some highranking princely families called “service prince”. Vorotynskie and odoevskie princes retained autonomy until 1573. Bel’skie until 1571, matislavskie until 1585. Grand princes also actively created island of autonomies as apolitical strategy. In mid 16 th analogous apanages for a line of nogai gorde was created at Romanov,which lasted until 1620. Odoevskie

Изображение слайда
14

Слайд 14: Dynastic Succession During Span of Russian Empire

Prince often imposed surety bonds on boyars or treaties on their kinsmen to guarantee their loyalty. Within 10 years of Ivan 3’s death in 1505 all collateral lines of the clan had died out,save the Staritsa line,which was finally extinguished in oprichnina in 1569. The perils of aggressive pruning of the family tree were exposed in 1598 when dynasty itself died out,destabilizing the political system almost terminally. Dynastic Succession During Span of Russian Empire Ivan 3

Изображение слайда
15

Слайд 15: THE FRONTIER

As diverse and dynamic as the centre was, even more volatile was the frontier on the west and south. In some ways calling this area the ‘frontier’ to the exclusion of the others is inaccurate. The north and centre were also riddled with ‘frontiers’–between Slavs and non‑Slavs, Orthodox and non‑Christians, farmers and trappers, Muslims and ‘pagans’. All these social interfaces generated tensions, synergies, and cross‑cultural fertilization. But in the west and the south the classic meaning of ‘frontier’ as outposts of defence and conquest applies. THE FRONTIER

Изображение слайда
16

Слайд 16: THE FRONTIER

On the west the frontier began with the Novgorod and Pskov lands south of the Gulf of Finland and extended south to the Smolensk area and south again to the upper Oka river region. This relatively narrow north‑south strip, located between the sixtieth and fiftieth latitudes, moved from taiga at the Novgorod end through deciduous‑coniferous mixed forest, approaching steppe in the south. These lands flanked the grand duchy of Lithuania and were hotly contested throughout the century; between 1491 and 1595. Muscovy spent a total of fifty years at war on the western front. After the rout of the Livonian War (1558–82) and the Time of Troubles (1598–1613). THE FRONTIER

Изображение слайда
17

Слайд 17: THE FRONTIER

Muscovy yielded lands from Karelia to beyond Smolensk to Sweden (Treaty of Stolbovo, 1617) and the Commonwealth of Poland‑Lithuania (Treaty of Deulino, 1618). Moscow tolerated administrative and social diversity. For example, when Smolensk was annexed in 1514. Vasilii III affirmed by charter the landholding and judicial rights historically granted to the region by the grand dukes of Lithuania. Muscovy fortified a line south of the Oka and at mid‑century it conquered Kazan and Astrakhan (1552, 1556). generally east‑west line of fortifications pushed steadily southward from the 1550s. THE FRONTIER

Изображение слайда
18

Последний слайд презентации: THE SPAN OF RUSSIAN EMPIRE

THANKS Questions? The land of tiaga is largely covered by which forest? How Beloozero and Vologda areas became magnets of energetic monastic colonization? When did the rate of church landholding increased? What was development of 16th century ? Where was frontier more volatile?

Изображение слайда