Презентация на тему: The SENTENCE: Principles of Classification

The SENTENCE: Principles of Classification
The SENTENCE: Principles of Classification
Structural classification of sentences
One-member sentences
Two-member sentences
Elliptical (incomplete) sentences
The SENTENCE: Principles of Classification
The SENTENCE: Principles of Classification
Unextended and extended sentences
Communicative types of sentences
Interrogative sentences
The SENTENCE: Principles of Classification
Imperative sentences
Exclamatory sentences
References
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Первый слайд презентации: The SENTENCE: Principles of Classification

Presented by Julia Kaurova

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The sentence is the immediate integral unit of speech built up of words according to a definite syntactic pattern and distinguished by a contextually relevant communicative purpose. The sentence is a unit of speech whose grammatical structure conforms to the laws of the language and which serves as the chief means of conveying a thought. The classification of sentences is based on two principles: According to the structure According to the purpose of the utterance

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Слайд 3: Structural classification of sentences

From the point of view of their structure, sentences can be: 1. Simple and composite 2. C omplete and incomplete (elliptical). 3. One-member and two-member The difference between the simple and the composite sentence lies in the fact that the simple sentence contains only one subject-predicate unit and the composite more than one. Composite sentences can be compound ( сложно-сочиненное) and complex ( сложно-подчиненное). The steamer arrived at the port yesterday (simple sentence). The agreement was signed, and the delegation left London (compound sentence). After the goods had been unloaded, they were taken to the warehouse (complex sentence). Structural classification of sentences

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Слайд 4: One-member sentences

A one-member sentence is a sentence having only one principal part which is neither the subject nor the predicate. This doesn’t mean that the other member is missing, for the one member makes the sense complete. One-member sentences are generally used in descriptions and in emotional speech. If the main part of this type of sentence is expressed by a noun, the sentence is called nominal. Dusk – of a summer night. The grass, this good, soft, lush grass. Silence. Verbal sentences are those in which the main part of a one-member sentence is expressed by an infinitive, gerund and non-finite form of the verb. To think of that! Living at the mercy of a woman! One-member sentences

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Слайд 5: Two-member sentences

A two-member sentence has two members – a subject and a predicate (it is the pattern). If one of them is missing it can be easily understood from the context. The basic pattern may be: 1) Unextended ( нераспространенное) – contains two main positions - the subject and the predicate. Mary smiled. He is happy. 2) Extended ( распространенный) – contain various optional elements (attributes, prepositional objects, adverbial modifiers). John ran quickly to me. Mary laughed heartily at the joke. Obligatory extending elements are those which complete the meaning of other words, usually verbs, or pronouns, which without them make no or little sense. Therefore obligatory elements are called complements. John learned French. (the meaning of “learned” is incomplete without the object “French”. John gives Mary his books. (the meaning of “gives Mary” conveys a different meaning without he object “his books”). Two-member sentences

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Слайд 6: Elliptical (incomplete) sentences

A two-member sentence may be complete and incomplete. It is complete when it has a subject and a predicate. She couldn’t help smiling. It is incomplete (elliptical) when one or more word-forms in the principal positions are omitted. Ellipsis here refers only to the structural elements of the sentence, not the informational ones. This means that those words can be omitted, cause they have only grammatical, structural relevance, and don’t carry any new relevant information. Elliptical (incomplete) sentences

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There are several types of elliptical sentences: 1) Sentences without a word-form in the subject position. Looks like rain. Seems difficult. 2) Sentences without word-forms in the subject position and part of the predicate position. In such cases the omitted part of the predicate may be either a) an auxiliary verb Going home soon? See what I mean? b) a link verb Not bad. Nice of you to come.

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3) Sentences without a word-form only in part of the predicate position, which may be an auxiliary or a link verb. You see them? You sure? 4) Sentences without word-forms both in the subject and the predicate position. Such ellipses occur in various responses. “What time does Dave come for lunch?” - “One o’clock”. “Where are you going?” – “Home”. 5) Sentences without a word-form in the predicate position. Such ellipses occur only in replies to questions. “Who lives there?” – “Jack.” “What has happened?” – “Nothing.”

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Слайд 9: Unextended and extended sentences

Simple sentences, both two-member and one-member, can be: Unextended ( нераспространенные ) – a sentence consisting only of primary or principal parts. She is a student. Birds fly. Winter! Extended ( распространенное ) – a sentence consisting of the subject, the predicate and one or more secondary parts (objects, attributes, adverbial modifiers) Tom went home miserable. Unextended and extended sentences

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Слайд 10: Communicative types of sentences

The sentence is a minimal unit of communication. From the viewpoint of their role in the process of communication sentences are divided into four types: declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory sentences. These types differ in the aim of communication and express statements, questions, commands and exclamations respectively. 1. The Declarative sentences ( повествовательные предложения). c ontains a statement which gives the reader (listener) some information about various events, activities or attitudes, thoughts and feelings. Statements form the bulk of monological speech and the greater part of conversation. A statement may be positive (affirmative) or negative : I have just come back from a business trip. I haven’t see my sister yet. In conversation, statements are often structurally incomplete: “Where are you going?” – “To the library.” Communicative types of sentences

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Слайд 11: Interrogative sentences

contain questions. Their communicative function consists in asking for information. There are four kinds of questions: 1) General questions requiring the answer yes or no and spoken with a rising intonation. Do you like art? Can you speak English? 2) Special questions beginning with an interrogative word and spoken with a falling intonation. Where do you live? 3) Alternative questions, including choice and spoken with a rising intonation in the first part and a falling in the second. Interrogative sentences

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Do you live in town or in the country? 4) Disjunctive (tag/tail) questions requiring the answer yes or no and consisting of an affirmative statement followed by a negative question, or a negative statement followed by an affirmative question. The first part is spoken with a falling intonation and the second with a rising intonation. You speak English, don’t you?

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Слайд 13: Imperative sentences

Express commands which convey the desire of the speaker to make someone, generally the listener, perform an action. Besides commands, imperative sentences may express prohibition, a request, an invitation, a warning, persuasion depending on the situation, context, wording, intonation. Commands are characterized by a falling tone: Stop talking ! Requests and invitations by a rising intonation: Open the door, please! Imperative sentences

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Слайд 14: Exclamatory sentences

Expresses some kind of emotion or feeling. It often begins with the words what and how, it is always in the declarative form. It is generally spoken with a falling intonation. What a lovely day it is! Beautiful! How wonderful! Exclamatory sentences

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Последний слайд презентации: The SENTENCE: Principles of Classification: References

Блох М. Я. Теоретическая грамматика английского языка. М., 2000. Н. А. Кобрина Грамматика английского языка. Спб, 2008 В. Л. Каушанская A grammar of the english language. M., 2012 B. Ilyish The structure of modern English. M., 1965 References

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