John Bardeen, William Shockley, and Walter Brattain were all scientists at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey.
The vacuum tube was used to amplify music and voice, to make long-distance call. But the tubes consumed power, gave off heat and burned out quickly. They required high maintenance.
The inventors were researching the behavior of germanium crystals as semiconductors. They wanted to replace vacuum tubes as mechanical relays in telecommunications.
In December, 1947 their experiment with two gold contacts applied to the germanium crystal produced an output signal power greater than the input signal.
The first transistor technology was developed in June, 1948. It was known as point contact device.
Bardeen and Brattain created the "point-contact" transistor. After that invention Shockley designed a new type of transistor called the "bipolar" transistor which was better and replaced the point-contact transistor.
William Bradford Shockley along with John Bardeen and Walter Brattain was the father of the transistor, the invention that is probably the greatest silent revolution of the twentieth century. The equipment we use every day (including televisions, mobile phones and computers) is based on the properties of the transistors. They say that the transistor in the twentieth century means the same as the steam engine in the nineteenth century.
True or false? 1. John Bardeen, William Shockley, and Walter Brattain worked in the big English Laboratory.
2. They invented the vacuum tube to amplify music and voice, to make long-distance call.
5. They wanted to replace vacuum tubes for something that wouldn’t consumed much power.
6. They made the experiment with two gold contacts applied to the germanium crystal in December, 1947.
7. The first transistor technology was developed in June, 1948. It was known as “bipolar” device.
9. The "bipolar" transistor was better and replaced the point-contact transistor.