Industry, Transport, Agriculture Prepared by t he student of A-386 Svetlana Skobeleva
R ailways Ship building Steel companies
The structure of industry
1. The main energy resource is oil. In the North Sea are 100 active oil and natural gas fields! In addition to the British companies operating in the area, there are a number of international firms, including Texaco, Philips Petroleum, and Chevron. 2. The natural gas industry is being developed by state- monopoly British Gas. 3.There is also significant production of refined metals such as aluminum and steel, presented by British Steel. The United Kingdom has substantial production of minerals used for construction: clay, kaolin, and gypsum. 75% of market is controlled by Blue Circle Cement and Castle Cement. 4. The UK has 15 operational nuclear reactors at seven plants (14 advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR) and one pressurised water reactor (PWR)), as well as nuclear reprocessing plants at Sellafield and the Tails Management Facility (TMF) operated by Ureco in Capenhurst. THE MAJOR SEGMENTS OF uk INDUSTRY 1/Energy and mi n ing of minerals
Other important sectors of the manufacturing industry include food, drink, tobacco, paper, printing, publishing and textiles. Examples of major companies: Diageo, SABMiller, Unilever, Cadbury, Tate & Lyle, British American Tobacco, Imperial Tobacco, EMAP, HarperCollins, and Reed Elsevier T he largest industries include machine tools; electric power, automation, and railroad equipment; ships; aircraft; motor vehicles and parts; electronic and communications equipment; metals; chemicals; coal; petroleum.
Transport is the most important industry of services sector. UK road network map is a great companion on roads of United Kingdom. 29,145 miles (46,904 km) of main roads, 2,173 miles (3,497 km) of motorways 213,750 miles (344,000 km) of paved roads.
The National Rail network of 10,072 route miles ( 16,116 km ) in Great Britain and 189 route miles ( 303 km ) in Northern Ireland carries over 18,000 passengers and 1,000 freight trains daily. Urban rail networks exist in Belfast, Birmingham, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Liverpool, London, Manchester and Newcastle.
There are many regional and international airports, with Heathrow Airport in London being one of the busiest in the world. There are 471 airports and airfields in the UK, of which 334 are paved. There are also 11 heliports. (2004 CIA estimates) Heathrow Airport is the largest airport by traffic volume in the UK, is owned by Heathrow Airport Holdings, and is one of the world's busiest airports. Gatwick Airport, the second largest, and is owned by Global Infrastructure Partners. The third largest is Manchester Airport, in Manchester, which is run by Manchester Airport Group, which also owns various other airports. Other major airports include Stansted Airport in Essex and London Luton Airport in Bedfordshire, both about 30 miles (48 km) north of London, Birmingham Airport in Solihull, Newcastle Airport, Liverpool Airport, and Bristol Airport.
Heathrow airport, terminal 5 Gatwick airport London Heliport
The UK also has a network of ports. The UK ports industry is the second largest in Europe. On goods turnover volume Great Britain takes the 14 th placec in the world. The largest ports are London, Liverpool, Southhampton. Associated British Ports company is the UK’s leading port operator, with a unique network of 21 ports across England, Scotland and Wales. ABP Ports
Total area of agricultural holdings 171 000 sq.km. 50% of the arable area is devoted to cereal crops, more than 65 % of cereal crops is wheat. The leading branch is livestock production. 31 million sheep, 10 million cattle, 9.6 million poultry 4.5 million pigs. + Skilled farmers High technology Fertile soil Subsidies - Low farm earnings (low prices at the farm gate) High land prices Shortage of left farmland discourage Aged farmers (average age is 59 years) Farmers produce 60% of the food the UK eats. 1,5% of work force 1% GNP Main agricultural areas are located in East and Southeast Anglia, around the Gulf Wash.
Biofuels are fuels produced from renewable organic materials. There are two main types of biofuel used in cars: bioethanol and biodiesel. Bioethanol is an alcohol made from corn and sugarcane, whereas biodiesel is made using vegetable oils and animal fats.
Organic food and drink sales rose by 9.5% in 2018, to £2.2bn. The fastest-growing sector was beer, wine and spirit sales, but chilled food and deli item sales, along with canned and packaged groceries, also rose significantly. However, the meat, fish, poultry and dairy categories all fell slightly.