Первый слайд презентации: The Composite Sentence
The Compound Sentence The compound sentence consists of two or more clauses of equal rank ( by means of coordination) which form one syntactical whole in meaning and intonation. Coordination is a way of linking grammatical elements to make them equal in rank ( copulative, adversative, disjunctive and causative-consecutive ). Asyndetic coordination ( бессоюзная связь). Syndetic coordination (союзная связь): ■ conjunctions ( and, but, for, or, nor, etc.) ■ conjunctive adverbs ( moreover, besides, however, yet, still, otherwise, therefore, etc.) The Complex Sentence The complex sentence is a sentence that consists of two (or more) clauses by means of subordination. One of these clauses is the independent (main or principle) clause, whereas the other is the dependent or subordinate clause. Subordination is a way of linking grammatical elements that makes one of them dependent upon the other (or they are mutually dependent). A subordinate clause is usually introduced by a conjunction or a relative pronoun. These connecting words make it clear that the clause expresses and idea that is subordinate to the main clause.
Слайд 2: A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate. There are two kinds of clauses: ■ independent or main clauses ; ■ dependent or subordinate clauses
An independent (main) clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate. An independent clause does not depend upon anything else for its meaning. It expresses a complete thought. The officer blew his whistle and the cars stopped. A subordinate clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate, but the clause cannot stand alone. A subordinate clause does not express a complete thought. It depends upon the main clause for its meaning. The connective, or the word that introduces the subordinate clause, plays an important part in making it a dependent clause. The cars stopped when the officer blew his whistle.
Слайд 3: Formal indicators of subordination (connectors)
Conjunctions Connectives Conjunctive words ( pronouns and adverbs ) Relative words (pronouns and adverbs )
Слайд 4: STRUCTURES
1. Main clause Subordinate clause Subordinate clause I see that you have lost the key which I gave you. Subordinate clause 2. Main clause and Subordinate clause I know that you are afraid of me and that you suspect me of something. 3. Main clause Predicative clause Attributive clause Attributive clause All she saw was that she might go to prison for a robbery she had committed years ago.
Слайд 5: Functional classification of subordinate clauses
■ Subject clause (that, if, whether…or, because, the way, who, whoever, what, whatever, which, where, wherever, when, whenever, how, why) ■ Predicative clause (that, whether…or, as, as if, as though, because, lest, the way, who, whoever, what, whatever, which, where, wherever, when, whenever, how, why ) ■ Object clause (that, if, whether, whether…or, lest, who, whoever, what, whatever, which, where, wherever, when, whenever, how, why, after, before, about, for, near, of, except, etc.) ■ Attributive clause (who, whose, whom, what, which, that, as, when, where, whence, wherein) ■ Appositive clause (that, if, whether, as if, as though, why, how)
Слайд 6: Adverbial clauses of: ► place (where, whence, wherever, everywhere) ► time (as, as soon as, as long as, when, whenever, while, now that, till, until, after, before, since, every time, next time, the time, the moment, the day directly, immediately, etc.) ► manner (as, the way) ► comparison (as, like, as if, as though, than, as…as, as…as if, so…as) ► condition (if, whether, once, in case, unless, provided that, providing that, suppose that, supposing that, granted that, granting that, admitting that, considering that, given that, seeing that) ► concession (although, though, if, though…yet, whether…or, whoever, whatever, whichever, whenever, wherever, no matter how/what, despite that, in spite of the fact, even if, even though, etc.) ► purpose (that, so that, lest, so as, so, in order that, for the fear that) ► cause/reason (as, because, since, so, that, lest, seeing that, considering, for the reason that, in view of the fact that, in so far as, by reason of) ► result/consequence (so that, that, so…that, such…that)
Слайд 7: Subject Clauses
1. That she understands his fault is clear. 2. Whether we played there or not means nothing now. 3. Who spoke at that meeting has escaped my memory. 4. What she told me yesterday proved to be correct. 5. It seemed unfair to him that he should suffer more than his wife.
Слайд 8: Predicative Clauses
1. The question is whether the weather is sunny. 2. That is what he wants you to think. 3. The fact was that he had forgotten about it. 4. Everything remained as it used to be in this room. 5. She looks as if she were ill.
Слайд 9: Object Clauses
1. We know that she is pretty. 2. Tom asked if he could take that book. 3. I do not know). what Peter should do now (which bag to buy/where to sleep. 4. The secretary told us how we can arrange our offers. 5. I am not certain of what he did.
Слайд 10: Attributive Clauses
1. The room has a stove which faces the door. 2. It is the same person whom we saw last month. 3. The castle where we once had dinner has disappeared. 4. The time when Mary was young has long passed. 5. Do you know the reason why Lena was late ?
Слайд 11: Adverbial Clauses
1. Let me smoke a cigar before I go (time). 2. Put the vase where it belongs (place). 3. I’m sorry I talked the way I did at lunch (manner). 4. He was as obstinate as were most of his relatives (comparison). 5. I will read you an English fairy-tale if my friend brings the book (condition). 6. Whenever you come send me a note (concession). 7. Eva had to talk louder, so that everyone could hear her (purpose). 8. Mike can’t go to the concert because he is busy (cause/reason). 9. Light fell on her there, so that Tom could see her face, eyes and hair (result/consequence).
Слайд 12: Define the type of the following subordinate clauses:
1. Which of the knives is good for our kitchen has to be decided. 2. The problem was that he treated us as unfamiliar people. 3. I heard that you got promoted! 4. When he arrives is not mentioned. 5. All we can do has already been done. 6. You can do whatever you want. 7. I felt as if I was guilty for all the crimes in the world. 8. Where she is hiding now is not known. 9. How you have managed to do it is very strange. 10. It happened when I was 10.