Первый слайд презентации: The Category of Mood
a wide notion of modality an indispensable attribute of each sentence the attitude of a speaker towards a happening whether he finds it a fact or a non-fact, i.e. imaginary, hypothetical desirable
Слайд 2: The Category of Mood: Debated problems
the character of the category the starting point of analysis the number of moods the existence of the Imperative Mood the existence of the Subjunctive Mood the nature of the forms should/ would + infinitive
Слайд 3: 1. The Category of Mood: The Character (4)
a purely morphological category (A.I. Smirnitsky, B.A.Ilyish and M.Y.Bloch) a morphologico- semantical phenomenon (O. Jespersen) semantico-syntactical phenomenon (prof. R. Long): distinctions between - the actual and the hypothetical - partly distinctions between clause patterns
Слайд 4: 1. The Category of Mood: The Character
prof. R. Long distinguishes - the indicative - the subjunctive - the infinitive - the gerundial - the participial moods
Слайд 5: 1. The Category of Mood: The Character (4)
a psychological phenomenon : “Mood expresses images of the twilight world of imagination”
Слайд 6: 2. The Category of Mood: The Starting Point of Analysis
forms which are to be systematized according to their meanings modal meanings which are to be classified according to their forms All attempts fail no universally acceptable scheme
Слайд 7: 2. The Category of Mood: The Starting Point of Analysis
no correspondence between meaning and form One and the same meaning can be expressed variously
Слайд 8: 2. The Category of Mood: The Starting Point of Analysis
The meaning of supposition : I suggest our going there. I suggest that we should go there. I suggest that we go there. The concessive meaning: Whatever it be ( can be, could be, may be, might be, should be, is)
Слайд 9: 2. The Category of Mood: The Starting Point of Analysis
One and the same external sign (form) different meanings : Were E.g. If he were to come, I should be pleased. He wondered whether she were in Spain. I wish he were here. Suppose he were here? It is as if he were ill.
Слайд 10: 2. The Category of Mood: The Starting Point of Analysis
Had done in two semantically different structures : I wish you had done it. I said he had done it.
Слайд 11: 3. The Category of Mood: The Number of Moods
meaning 16 Moods: The Hypothetical Mood - the Potential Mood, The Optative Mood - the Voluntative Mood The Permissive Mood - the Compulsory Mood The Suppositional Mood The Indicative Mood - the Conditional Mood The Imperative Mood - The Irrealis etc.
Слайд 12: 3. The Category of Mood: The Number of Moods A.I. Smirnitsky: 6 Moods
Direct - Iindirect (Oblique Moods) Indicative I mperative Synthetical Analytical Sub II (Pres.) Subjunctive I Subjunctive II (Pst) The Conditional The Suppositional
Слайд 13: 3. The Category of Mood: The Number of Moods
3 Moods : - The Indicative - The Imperative - The Subjunctive
Слайд 14: The Indicative Mood
Semantically - the most objective mood Morphologically - the most developed
Слайд 15: The Imperative Mood
expresses order, command, a stimulus; the least developed mood resembling in form Sujunctive I and the infinitive; Hence, some scholars do not recognize its existence.
Слайд 16: The Imperative Mood
undeveloped Still: very peculiar forms in syntagmatics E.g. Have done it by the time he comes. ( the perfect form of the imperative ); Be always searching for new sensations. ( the continuous form of the imperative)
Слайд 17: The Imperative Mood
polysemantic develops the meanings of condition or concession : E.g. Make me do these things and you would destroy me. (J.London) → If you make me do these things, you will destroy me.
Слайд 18: The Subjunctive Mood
the most confusing mood In Old English: a fully inflective Subjunctive comparable with Latin or German denoted problematic, hypothetical and purely imaginary actions
Слайд 19: The Subjunctive Mood
in a state of decay : The simple Subjunctive ( Subjunctive I ) is being supplanted (вытеснять) by the forms: lest he should die or that he may die Subjunctive II is being supplanted by: was ( I wish he was in Hell.)
Слайд 20: The Subjunctive Mood
few formal distinctions: E.g. God bless my wife. I wish he wer e here.
Слайд 21: The Subjunctive Mood: The existence of the category
The difference between the Indicative mood and the Subjunctive mood has practically come to be blotted out E.g. If I wasn’t your friend, I think I’d blame you. ! O. Jespersen, L. Barchudarov : do not recognize
Слайд 22: The Subjunctive Mood The existence of the category
O. Jespersen’s theory of the imaginative use of tenses: past tenses indicate, in certain syntactic conditions, hypothesis supposition problemacity E.g. He smiles as if he had never heard about it. → before past time expressing unreality
Слайд 23: O. Jespersen’s theory of the imaginative use of tenses
In the complex sentence in the contaminated clause, embracing the properties of two sub-clauses ( a predicative clause and an adverbial clause of unreal comparison ) before past time expresses unreal comparison: It is as if he had never been there.
Слайд 24: O. Jespersen’s theory of the imaginative use of tenses
the absence of the Subjunctive is made up for by - some stereotyped phrases - grammatical idioms ( so be it ) - combinations of modal verbs and infinitives - the imaginative use of past tenses (times) which become modally coloured in some patterns ( I wish he had done it )
Слайд 25: The Subjunctive Mood: The nature of the category
Eric Partridge: the Subjunctive is not an extinct ( вымирающий ) mood. a living mood in different patterns of simple sentences, in complex sentences E.g. God bless you. If he knew, he would come. (a cond. cl.) Even if he had come he wouldn’t have understood. (a concessive clause) I wish he came. (an object clause)
Слайд 26: The Subjunctive Mood The nature of the category
Eric Partridge: The Subjunctive, depending upon syntactical patterns, embraces different forms: might, came, should, had come, were, be a semantic-syntactic- morphological category
Слайд 27: The Subjunctive Mood The nature of the category
M.Y. Bloch distinguishes 3 Subjunctives : - T he S tipulative (Subjunctive II): E.g. I wish he came. - T he Spective (Subjunctive I) : E.g. God bless him. - The Consecutive (Subjunctive III): E.g. He would have refused.
Слайд 28: The Subjunctive Mood
A.I. Smirnitsky’s classification of moods most convenient for practical analysis formal criteria peculiar models on the level of the simple and complex sentences
Слайд 29: The Subjunctive Mood: A. I. Smirnitsky’s classification
Subjunctive II on the level of the simple sentence : E.g. Oh, that I were a glove upon that hand. ( W.Shakespeare) Oh, if he were here. Oh, that he were here. If only he were here. Were he only here!
Слайд 30: The Subjunctive Mood A. I. Smirnitsky’s classification
Subjunctive II on the level of the complex sentence: E.g. It is as if he were here. If he were here, he would understand. Even if he were here he wouldn’t understand. I wish he came.
Слайд 31: The Category of Mood
hard to represent in terms of binary oppositions Prof. Zandvoort: he play :: he plays (non-fact :: fact) one integral form of the Indicative is opposed to one integral form of the Subjunctive