Первый слайд презентации: The Category of Aspect
a mode (a phase) of an action : continuity, progressiveness, completion, resultativity, instantaneousness
Слайд 2: The Category of Aspect Debated Problems
The existence of this category in English The nature of the category The number of aspects The paradigmatic meaning of the continuous form Interaction of verbal categories
Слайд 3: The Category of Aspect Debated Problems
The existence of this category in English Some do not recognize: - aspectual relations contextually by lexico-grammatical means - The continuous and perfect forms tenses
Слайд 4: The Category of Aspect Debated Problems
2. Nature of the category logical grammatical (5 aspects) (3) (2) aspects
Слайд 5: Aspect ( Debated Problems) Number of Aspects: a Logical Category (5)
T he ingressive aspect (the initial phase of an action) E.g. He went running. He started reading. The durative aspect (a progressive action) E.g. He is eating. The terminative aspect (an action as a finished whole) E.g. It hit the target.
Слайд 6: Aspect ( Debated Problems) Number of Aspects
The effective aspect (the final point of an action) E.g. He has done it. He came running. The iterative aspect (repeated actions) E.g. He often gets sick. He would come here every day last month.
Слайд 7: Aspect ( Debated Problems) Number of aspects: a Grammatical Category
3 aspects: - the imperfect aspect E.g. He was doing it. - the perfect aspect E.g. He has done it. - the indefinite aspect E.g. He did it.
Слайд 8: Aspect ( Debated Problems) Number of aspects: a Grammatical Category
2 aspects Professors Smirnitsky, Barkhudarov, Ilyish, Khlebnikova the common and the continuous the binary privative opposition of two forms: read::am reading ; reads:: is reading ; has read:: has been reading
Слайд 9: Aspect ( Debated Problems) : 4. The paradigmatic meaning of the continuous form
- duration or limited duration O. Jespersen - simultaneity Vorontsova - continuity within certain time limits Ilyish - development Blokh the continuous forms // the noncontinuous forms
Слайд 10: Aspect ( Debated Problems) 5. Interaction of Verbal Categories
penetrates other verbal categories Tense and Aspect: - blended - inseparable - should be treated jointly Vorontsova and Ivanova Tense and Aspect: two distinct categories Tense the time of an action Aspect development of an action professors Barkhudarov, Smirnitsky, Ilyish
Слайд 11: Aspect: Neutralization of Forms
the continuous // the noncontinuous forms forms E.g. You are always complaining. = You always complain. continuous forms: semantically redundant ! stylistically extremely important
Слайд 12: Aspect Stylistic Importance
continuous forms impart emotiveness, expressiveness, intensiveness and evaluation (positive and negative) to a sentence or text
Слайд 13: Aspect: The Semantic Content of Continuos Forms
rather complex: the paradigmatic invariant (constant) meaning of continuity the syntagmatic variable (changing) meaning of permanence, timelessness, futurity, emotiveness, intensiveness, expressiveness, evaluation
Слайд 14: T he F requent U sage of C ontinuous F orms in M odern English
artistic considerations : more emphatic than noncontinuous forms psychological explanation The British are becoming more impulsive, forgetting about their traditional reticence more frequent in the speech of females
Слайд 15: Aspect: G rammatical M etaphor
semantic disagreement between the non-dynamic meaning of the verb and the dynamic meaning of a continuous form D iscourse more dynamic, emotive, evaluatory : E.g. I’m not listening, I’m not seeing, I’m not feeling. I’m falling in love with you again.
Слайд 16: Aspect: The Stylistic Value of Continuous Forms
Artistic texts: impart dynamism to normally undynamic verbs E.g. Now he was remembering everything. Is she still liking England? Loving it.
Слайд 17: Aspect: The Stylistic Value of Continuous Forms
an ironic effect based upon contrasts and contradictions E.g. You are being very charitable today. The Continuous Form limits the action to a certain moment in time. However a person, normally, cannot be charitable for a very limited period of time. It is his permanent characteristics.
Последний слайд презентации: The Category of Aspect: Aspect: The Stylistic Value of Continuous Forms
Create the cinematic effect of immediacy, a sense of sharing thus contribute to the authenticity of the text (its plausibility and veracity ) E.g. Edna sees to her horror his hair is snow-white. Jimmy! Too late, too late! The tears are running down his face; he is crying now. (K.Mansfield)