Первый слайд презентации: The basics of the English language (lexicology)
Сандалова Н.В к.ф.н., ст. преп. каф. английской филологии и сопоставительного языкознания, УрГПУ firstname.lastname@example.org
Слайд 2: Lecture 9 - 10 – Etymology and borrowings
Plan: Etymology Native words Borrowed words Assimilation of borrowings Sources and classification of borrowings Etymological doublets and International words
Слайд 3: Etymology
Отрасль лингвистики, изучающая исторические отношения между словом и более ранними формами или формой, от которых (которой) слово гипотетически произошло.
Слайд 4: Etymology of the English Word-stock
Etymology (Gr. etymon “truth” + Gr. logos “learning”) is a branch of linguistics that studies the origin (происхождение) and history of words (историю слов), tracing them to their earliest determinable source (предпринимая попытки отследить их до самого раннего определяемого источника).
More than two thirds (Более 2 / 3) of the English vocabulary are borrowings (заимствования). Mostly they are words of Romanic origin ( Latin, French, Italian, Spanish ). Borrowed words are different from native ones by their phonetic structure, by their morphological structure and also by their grammatical forms. English history is very rich in different types of contacts with other countries, that is why it is very rich in borrowings.
Слайд 8: Definitions
A native word (исконное слово) is a word which belongs to the original English word stock (оригинальному, самому древнему пласту), as known from the earliest available manuscripts of the Old English period (древне английский период). A borrowed word (a borrowing, or a loan word, заимствование ) is a word taken over from another language and modified in phonemic shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to the standards of the English language (полностью или частично модифицированное по стандартам АЯ).
Исконные слова (индоевропейские): kinship terms (термины родства) : mother, father, son, daughter, brother ; important objects and phenomena of nature (самые важные природные объекты) : sun, moon, wind, water, stone, hill ; animals and plants (некоторые растения и животные) : goose, wolf, cow, tree, corn ; parts of human body (части тела) : ear, tooth, eye, foot, heart, lip ;
5. concrete physical properties and qualities (основные прилагательные) : hard, quick, slow, red, white, new ; 6. numerals from 1 to a 100 (числительные от 1 до 100) : one, two, twenty, eighty ; 7. pronouns (personal, demonstrative, interrogative (местоимения) ): I, you, he, my, that, who ; 8. some of the most frequent words (наиболее частотные слова) : bear, do, be, sit, stand.
Слайд 11: Words of the common Germanic origin (слова общегерманские)
These words have parallels in German, Norwegian, Dutch, Icelandic (немецкий, норвежский, голландский, исландский). They contain a great number of semantic groups of which are the same as in the Indo-European group of native words (к ним относятся некоторые схожие категории с индоевропейскими словами) :
parts of the human body (части тела) : head, arm, finger ; periods of time (времена года) : summer, winter, time, week ; natural phenomena (природные феномены) : storm, rain, flood, ice, ground, sea, earth ; artefacts and materials (артефакты и материалы) : bridge, house, shop, room, coal, iron, lead, cloth ; different kinds of garment (одежда) : hat, shirt, shoe ;
abstract notions (абстрактные понятия) : care, evil, hope, life, need ; animals, birds and plants (растения и животные) : sheep, horse, fox, crow, oak, grass ; various notional verbs (глаголы) : bake, burn, drive, buy, hear, keep, learn, make, rise ; adjectives of colour, size, etc (прилагательные) : broad, dead, deaf, deep, grey, blue ; adverbs (наречия) : down, out, before.
Слайд 14: Характеристики исконных слов
Высокая степень сочетаемости, частотность использования; Развитая семантика, полисемия ; Высокий словообразовательный потенциал ; Способность участвовать в создании идиом.
Слайд 15: Исторические причины заимствований
Римское завоевание (1 st c. B.C.), Введение Христианства (7 th c. A.D.), Набеги датчан (11 th – 13 th c. A.D.), Норманнское завоевание (1066 A.D.), Эпоха Возрождения (14 th – 16 th c. A.D.), Прямые языковые контакты и политические культурные и т.д. отношения между разными странами (современный период)
Слайд 16: The Etymology of Borrowed Words
Celtic (Кельтские) : 5 th – 6 th A. D. Latin (Латинские) : 1 st layer: 1 st c. B. C. (Римское завоевание) 2 nd layer: 7 th c. A. D. (the introduction of Christianity (Христианство) ) 3 rd layer: 14 th – 16 th c. (the Renaissance period (Возрождение) ) Scandinavian (скандинавские) : 8 th – 11 th c. A. D.
Слайд 17: The Etymology of Borrowed Words
French (Французские) : Norman borrowings: 11 th – 13 th A. D. Parisian borrowings: the Renaissance period Greek : the Renaissance period Italian : the Renaissance period and later Spanish : the Renaissance period and later Russian : the Renaissance period and later German, Indian and other languages
a number of Scandinavian borrowings were felt as derived from native words (they were of the same root and the connection between them was easily seen ), for example, drop (AS.) – drip (Scand.), true (AS. )- tryst (Scand.). Here are some examples of early Scandinavian borrowings: call (v), take (v), cast (v), die (v), law (n), husband (n), window (n), ill (adj), loose (adj), low (adj), weak (adj).
Some of the words of this group are easily recognisable as Scandinavian borrowings by the initial sk- combination: sky, skill, skin, ski, skirt etc.
Слайд 20: Пути заимствования
Borrowings enter the language in 2 ways: through oral speech – через устную речь (by immediate contact between the peoples ). They took place in the early periods (ранние) of history. They are usually short (краткие) and undergo considerable changes in the act of adoption (наиболее подвержены ассимиляции и часто неотличимы от исконных слов, не ощущаются как чужеродные).
Borrowings enter the language in 2 ways: through written speech – через письменную речь (by indirect contact through books, etc.). They gained importance in recent times (более современные). They preserve their spelling and some peculiarities of their sound-form (часто сохраняют изначальное написание, звучание), their assimilation is long and laborious process (долго и незначительно ассимилируются).
Слайд 22: Классификация заимствований
Borrowings can be classified according to different criteria : a) according to the aspect which is borrowed (аспект заимствования) ; b) according to the degree of assimilation (степень ассимиляции) ; c) according to the language from which the word was borrowed (язык заимствования).
Слайд 23: Первый критерий – аспект заимствования
There are the following groups : phonetic borrowings (loan words proper) (фонетические), translation loans (переводные кальки), semantic borrowings (семантические заимствования), word coins (производные), morphemic borrowings (заимствование морфем).
Слайд 24: Phonetic borrowings
Самые частотные во всех языках мира, называются loan words proper (идеальные заимствования). Слова заимствуются с их написанием, произношением, значением, проходят процесс ассимиляции, каждый звук изначального языка заменяется на соответствующий звук языка-реципиента) Иногда написание полностью меняется, может меняться также и семантическая структура
Слайд 25: Phonetic borrowings
The position of the stress is very often influenced by the phonetic system of the borrowing language (перенос ударения по правилам языка-реципиента). The paradigm of the word, sometimes the meaning of the borrowed word are also changed (грамматика может меняться). labour, travel, table, chair, people ( French ) ; nomenklatura, sputnik ( Russian ) ; bank, soprano ( Italian ).
Слайд 26: Translation borrowings ( калька )
Words and expressions formed from the material already existing in the English language (формируются из существующих слов) according to patterns taken from another language (по моделям другого языка), by way of literal morpheme-for-morpheme or word-for-word translation (пословный или поморфемный перевод, mother tongue< L. lingua maternal wall newspaper < Russ. Стенгазета.
Слайд 27: Semantic borrowing ( семантическое заимствование)
It is understood as the development in an English word (развитие в английском слове нового значения) of a new meaning under the influence of a related word in another language (под влиянием сходного слова другого языка) e.g. the English word pioneer means ‘ explorer ’ and ‘ one who is among the first in new fields of activity ’. Under influence of the Russian word пионер it has come to mean ‘ a member of the Young Pioneers’ Organization ’.
Слайд 28: Other types of borrowings
word coins (произв о дные) from Latin and Greek – are formed to denote new notions or inventions using Latin or Greek words (telephone) morphemic borrowings – first a number of words with the morpheme is taken from another language, then the morpheme begins to form new words ( -able- Latin ; - ment- French ; -ism- Greek ).
Слайд 29: Assimilation of borrowings
denotes a partial or total confrontation (частичное или полное влияние) to the phonetical, graphical and morphological standards of the English language and its semantic system.
The degree of assimilation (степень ассимиляции) of borrowings depends on the following factors : a) from what group of languages the word was borrowed (if the word belongs to the same group of languages to which the borrowing language belongs it is assimilated easier ) – принадлежность одной группе = более быстрая ассимиляция ; b) in what way the word is borrowed : orally or in the written form (words borrowed orally are assimilated quicker ) – заимствованные устно = более быстрая ассимиляция ;
The degree of assimilation of borrowings depends on the following factors : c) how often the borrowing is used in the language (the greater the frequency of its usage, the quicker it is assimilated ) – частота использования в языке = более быстрая ассимиляция ; d) how long the word lives in the language (the longer it lives, the more assimilated it is) – длительное существование слова в языке = более быстрая ассимиляция.
Слайд 32: Degree of Assimilation
Completely assimilated words (полностью) E.g.: wine, window, chair. 2) Partially assimilated words (частично) a. Loan words not assimilated semantically E.g.: sari, toreador. b. Loan words not assimilated grammatically E.g.: formula, index, phenomenon. c. Loan words not assimilated phonetically or graphically. E.g.: ballet, buffet, café. Unassimilated (не ассимилированные) E.g. haute couture. The words from other languages for which there are corresponding English equivalents are so-called barbarisms. E.g.: ciao.
Completely assimilated borrowed words (полностью) They follow all morphological, phonetical and orthographic standards (соответствуют стандарту языка-реципиента). They take part in word-formation (участвуют в словообразовании). Their morphological structure and motivation is transparent (мотивированны). They are found in all layers of older borrowings: cheese (L.), husband (Sc.), animal (L.)
Completely (полностью ассимилированные) assimilated borrowings are not felt as foreign words in the language (не ощущаются чужеродными). Completely assimilated verbs belong to regular verbs: correct – corrected. Completely assimilated nouns form their plural by means of s-inflexion : gate – gates. In completely assimilated French words the stress has been shifted from the last syllable to the first one: capital, service.
2) Partially (частично) assimilated borrowed words are subdivided into : borrowings not completely assimilated graphically (не полностью ассимилированные в графике). These are words from French, in which the final consonant is not read : ballet, buffet ; with a diacritic mark: café, cliché ; diagraphs ch, qu, ou, etc.: bouquet, banquet.
2) Partially (частично) assimilated borrowed words are subdivided into : borrowings not completely assimilated phonetically (не полностью ассимилированные в фонетике). e.g. from French with the stress on the final syllable : machine, cartoon, police, bourgeois, prestige, regime.
2) Partially (частично) assimilated borrowed words are subdivided into : borrowings not completely assimilated grammatically (не полностью ассимилированные в грамматике). e.g., nouns from Latin and Greek keep their original plural forms : phenomenon – phenomena; criterion – criteria.
2) Partially assimilated borrowed words are subdivided into : borrowings not completely assimilated semantically because they denote objects and notions peculiar to the country from which they come, e.g. sari, sombrero, rickshaw (Ch), sherbet (Arab), etc.
Слайд 39: 3) Unassimilated borrowings or barbarisms (не ассимилированные = варваризмы)
are words from other languages used by English people, e.g. ciao – ‘good-bye’ or tête-à-tête.
Слайд 40: Classification of Borrowings according to the language from which they were Borrowed
Romanic (Latin, Greek), French, Italian, Spanish, Scandinavian, German, Dutch, Russian
Слайд 41: Major Influences
Celtic - the number of celticisms in English is small. Scandinavian - the years 750 - 1050 are known as The Viking Age of England. Their influence upon the language was strong. Norman and French - the Norman period lasted nearly 300 years. Latin and Greek The first period of Latin influence was during the Roman occupation. The second wave of the influence came with the christianization. The third wave dated to the 14 th, 15 th, and 16 th centuries - the period of New Learning, when Greek and Latin were established as the main languages of learning, science, and culture.
Слайд 42: Minor Influences
Dutch The contact with the Dutch language was mediated by the political, commercial, and cultural contacts; thus the main spheres were maritime terminology ( dock, gin, commodore, etc.), and terminology of drawing and painting ( sketch, landscape ). Italian Main spheres are business (bank, risk, bankrupt, etc.), music, and architecture. Others Spanish, German, Russian, Czech, Indian, Japanese, Red Indian, etc.
Слайд 43: Early Influences
Celtic borrowings : A few Celtic words, such as crag, entered what would become the English language. Latin loans : Roman soldiers and priests came to the British Isles before the massive invasions of Northern Europeans.
Слайд 44: Celtic borrowings
Place names : Avon, Exe, Esk, Usk, Ux (Celtic “river”, “water”); London ( Llyn “river”+ dun “ a fortified hill”) - “a fortress on the hill over the river” cradle, cross, iron, flannel, tweed, lake (C. loch )
Слайд 45: Latin borrowings
Among words of Romanic origin borrowed from Latin during the period when the British Isles were a part of the Roman Empire, there are such words as: street, port, wall etc.
Слайд 46: Latin borrowings
Many Latin and Greek words came into English during the Adoption of Christianity in the 6-th century. At this time the Latin alphabet was borrowed which ousted the Runic alphabet. These borrowings are usually called classical borrowings. Here belong Latin words: alter, cross, dean, and Greek words: church, angel, devil, anthem.
Слайд 47: Latin borrowings
Latin and Greek borrowings appeared in English during the Middle English period due to the Great Revival of Learning. These are mostly scientific words because Latin was the language of science at the time. These words were not used as frequently as the words of the Old English period, therefore some of them were partly assimilated grammatically, e.g. formula - formulae. Here also belong such words as: memorandum, minimum, maximum, veto etc.
Слайд 48: Latin borrowings
Classical borrowings continue to appear in Modern English as well. Mostly they are words formed with the help of Latin and Greek morphemes. In medicine ( appendicitis, aspirin ), in chemistry ( acid, valency ), in technique ( engine, antenna, biplane ), in politics ( socialism, militarism ), names of sciences ( zoology, physics ). In philology most of terms are of Greek origin ( homonym, archaism, lexicography ).
Слайд 49: The earliest Latin borrowings (1 st c. A.D.)
words denoting things connected with war, trade, building and domestic life: pound, inch, cup, kitchen, pepper, butter, cheese, milk, wine, cherry
Слайд 50: Latin words borrowed into English through the Christianization of England (7 th c. A.D.)
persons, objects and ideas associated with church and religious rituals : priest, bishop, monk, nun, candle, temple words connected with learning : grammar, school, scholar, decline, master, magister
Слайд 51: Latin borrowings of the Renaissance period (14 th – 16 th c. A.D.)
abstract words : major, minor, filial, moderate, intelligent, permanent, to elect, to create.
Слайд 52: Scandinavian borrowings
By the end of the Old English period English underwent a strong influence of Scandinavian due to the Scandinavian conquest of the British Isles. Scandinavians belonged to the same group of peoples as Englishmen and their languages had much in common (много общего). As the result of this conquest there are about 700 borrowings from Scandinavian into English.
Слайд 53: Scandinavian borrowings
Even some pronouns and connective words were borrowed which happens very seldom, such as: same, both, till, fro, though, pronominal forms with « th »: they, them, their. Scandinavian influenced the development of phrasal verbs, which did not exist in Old English (фразовые глаголы). Phrasal verbs (фразовые глаголы) are now highly productive in English / take off, give in etc/.
Слайд 54: Scandinavian borrowings (8 th - 11 th c. A.D.)
Verbs : call, take, cast, die, want Nouns : law, egg, husband (Sc. hūs + bōndi “inhabitant of the house”), window (Sc. vindauga “the eye of the wind”) Adjectives : ill, loose, low, weak Pronouns and pronominal forms : they, their, them, same, both, though.
Слайд 55: Scandinavian borrowings (place names)
Derby, Tremsby (-by : Sc. “village, town”); Zinthorp, Altharp (-thorp : Sc. “village”); Eastoft, Nortoft (-toft : Sc. “a plot of land covered with grass”); Troutbeck (-beck : Sc. “brook”); Inverness (-ness : Sc. “cape”); Applethwait, Crossthwait (- thwait : Sc. “forest glade”)
Слайд 56: Scandinavian borrowings
However there were also many words in the two languages which were different, and some of them were borrowed into English, such nouns as : bull, cake, egg, kid, knife, skirt, window etc, such adjectives as : flat, ill, happy, low, odd, ugly, wrong, such verbs as : call, die, guess, get, give, scream and many others.
Слайд 57: Norman influence
The largest group of borrowings are French borrowings. Most of them came into English during the Norman Conquest (норманнское завоевание). French influenced not only the vocabulary of English but also it’s spelling, because French scribes wrote documents as the local population was mainly illiterate, and the ruling class was French (влияние на правописание).
Слайд 58: The French Language in England 1066-1200
Norman French is the native language of the nobility (французский – язык аристократии, верхушки государства). Probably not a great deal of bilingualism (малая степень билингвизма). Small numbers of French loans enter English (небольшое количество заимствований).
Слайд 59: The French Language in England 1200-1300
French is the cultivated, prestige language (престижный язык). There is a diglossic situation, with French the high-prestige, English the low-prestige variety (диглоссия, французский престижный, английский – нет). Large numbers of French loans enter English (большое количество заимствований) The French Language in England 1200-1300
Слайд 60: The French Language in England 1300-1400
English becomes the dominant language, but French remains dominant in literature and at the court (английский начинает доминировать). Although the knowledge of French is waning, its linguistic prestige can be seen by still increasing numbers of French loans in English (заимствования продолжаются). The French Language in England 1300-1400
Слайд 61: The French Language in England 1300-1400 Factors contributing to the decline of French (почему французский уступил) :
1334-1453 The Hundred Years' War with France (война с Францией). 1348-9 The Black Death. 30% mortality. Labour shortage, wage rises, increasing importance of the English-speaking classes (эпидемия чумы = необходимость в трудовом населении (англоязычные)) 1386 English accepted in the courts ('Statute of Pleading') – признание английского в суде The French Language in England 1300-1400 Factors contributing to the decline of French (почему французский уступил) :
Слайд 62: The French Language in England 1300-1400 Factors contributing to the decline of French (почему французский уступил) :
Two major English poets at the end of the 14th century: Gower writes mostly in French (but composes one long work Confessio amantis, in English) Chaucer writes almost entirely in English. Evidence of private letters: 1350: French is the rule. After 1400: English becomes common. After 1450: English is the rule. Расцвет англоязычной культуры и поэзии The French Language in England 1300-1400 Factors contributing to the decline of French (почему французский уступил) :
Слайд 63: Norman influence
« v » was introduced for the voiced consonant / v / instead of « f » in the intervocal position /lufian - love/, the digraph « ch » was introduced to denote the sound / ch / instead of the letter « c » / chest / before front vowels where it had been palatalized, the digraph « sh » was introduced instead of the combination « sc » to denote the sound / sh / / ship /,
Слайд 64: Norman influence
the digraph « th » was introduced instead of the Runic letter « ð » / this, thing /, the letter « y » was introduced instead of the Runic letter « 3 » to denote the sound / j / / yet /, the digraph « qu » substituted the combination « cw » to denote the combination of sounds / kw / / queen /,
Слайд 65: Norman influence
the digraph « ou » was introduced to denote the sound / u: / / house / (The sound / u: / was later on diphthongized and is pronounced / au / in native words and fully assimilated borrowings). As it was difficult for French scribes to copy English texts they substituted the letter « u » before « v », « m », « n » and the digraph « th » by the letter « o » to escape the combination of many vertical lines /«sunu» - «son», luvu» - «love» /.
Слайд 66: Norman borrowings (11 th – 13 th c. A.D.)
Educational terms : pupil, lesson, library, science, pen, pencil Artistic and literary terms : image, character, figure, volume, design Terms of everyday life : chair, table, plate, saucer, dinner, supper, breakfast
Слайд 67: Norman borrowings (11 th – 13 th c. A.D.)
Government and administration : state, country, government, parliament, prince, baron Legal terms : court, judge, justice, crime, prison, jury Religious terms : saint, sermon ( проповедь ), prayer, parish ( приход ), chapel Military terms : army, war, soldier, officer, battle, enemy
Слайд 68: English-French Pairs
Sheep-mutton Calf-veal Deer-venison Pig-pork Begin-commence Child-infant Doom-judgment Freedom-liberty Happiness-felicity Hearty-cordial Help-aid Hide-conceal Holy-saintly Meal-repast Stench-aroma Wish-desire
Слайд 69: Parisian borrowings: the Renaissance period and later
regime, routine, police, machine, ballet, matinée, scene, technique, bourgeois, etc.
Words were borrowed from French into English after 1650, mainly through French literature, but they were not as numerous and many of them are not completely assimilated. There are the following semantic groups of these borrowings:
a) words relating to literature and music : belle-lettres, conservatorie, brochure, nuance, piruette, vaudeville ; b) words relating to military affairs : corps, echelon, fuselage, manouvre; c) words relating to buildings and furniture : entresol, chateau, bureau ; d) words relating to food and cooking : ragout, cuisine.
Слайд 72: Italian influence
Cultural and trade relations between Italy and England brought many Italian words into English. The earliest Italian borrowing came into English in the 14-th ce ntury, it was the word « bank » /from the Italian « banko » - « bench »/. Italian moneylenders and moneychangers sat in the streets on benches.
Слайд 73: Italian influence
When they suffered losses they turned over their benches, it was called « banco rotta » from which the English word « bankrupt » originated. In the 17-th century some geological terms were borrowed: volcano, granite, bronze, lava. At the same time some political terms were borrowed: manifesto, bulletin.
Слайд 74: Italian influence
But mostly Italian is famous by its influence in music and in all Indo-European languages musical terms were borrowed from Italian : alto, baritone, basso, tenor, falsetto, solo, duet, trio, quartet, quintet, opera, operetta, libretto, piano, violin. Among the 20-th century Italian borrowings we can mention: gazette, incognito, altostrati, fiasco, fascist, dilettante, grotesque, graffitto etc.
Слайд 75: Spanish influence
Spanish borrowings came into English mainly through its American variant. There are the following semantic groups of them: a) trade terms : cargo, embargo ; b) names of dances and musical instruments : tango, rumba, habanera, guitar ; c) names of vegetables and fruit : tomato, potato, tobacco, cocoa, banana, ananas, apricot etc.
Слайд 76: The Renaissance period borrowings (14 th – 16 th c. A.D.)
Italian : piano, violin, opera, alarm, colonel Spanish : potato, tomato, cargo, banana, cocoa. Greek: direct (e.g. atom, cycle, ethics, esthete ), or through Latin ( datum, status, phenomenon, phenomenon, philosophy, method, music ).
Слайд 77: German borrowings
There are some 800 words borrowed from German into English. Some of them have classical roots, e.g. in some geological terms, such as: cobalt, bismuth, zink, quarts, wolfram. There were also words denoting objects used in everyday life which were borrowed from German: iceberg, lobby, and rucksack, Kindergarten etc.
Слайд 78: German borrowings
In the period of the Second World War the following words were borrowed: Volkssturm, Luftwaffe, SS-man, Bundeswehr, gestapo, gas chamber and many others. After the Second World War the following words were borrowed: Volkswagen etc.
Слайд 79: Holland influence
Holland and England have constant interrelations for many centuries and more than 2000 Holland borrowings were borrowed into English. Most of them are nautical terms and were mainly borrowed in the 14-th century, such as: freight, skipper, pump, keel, dock, reef, deck, leak and many others.
Слайд 80: Russian influence
There were constant contacts between England and Russia and they borrowed words from one language into the other. Among early Russian borrowings there are mainly words connected with trade relations, such as: rouble, copeck, pood, sterlet, vodka, sable, and also words relating to nature, such as: taiga, tundra, steppe etc.
Слайд 81: Russian influence
There is also a large group of Russian borrowings which came into English through Rushian literature of the 19-th century, such as: Narodnik, moujik, duma, zemstvo, volost, ukase etc, and also words which were formed in Russian with Latin roots, such as: nihilist, intelligenzia, Decembrist etc.
Слайд 82: Russian influence
After the Great October Revolution many new words appeared in Russian connected with the new political system, new culture, and many of them were borrowed into English, such as: collectivization, udarnik, Komsomol etc., and also translation loans, such as: collective farm, five-year plan. One more group of Russian borrowings is connected with perestroika, such as: glasnost, nomenklatura, etc.
Слайд 83: Other borrowings
Japanese: karate, judo, hara-kiri, kimono, tycoon ; Arabic : algebra, algorithm, fakir, giraffe, sultan Turkish : yogurt, kiosk, tulip Persian : caravan, shawl, bazaar, sherbet Eskimo : kayak, igloo, anorak Amerindian languages : toboggan, wigwam, opossum Russian : bistro, tsar, balalaika, tundra, sputnik
Слайд 84: Etymological doublets (этимологические дублеты)
Etymological Doublets are the words originated from the same etymological source, but different in phonemic shape and in meaning. The words shirt and skirt etymologically descend from the same root. Shirt is a native word, and skirt is a Scandinavian borrowing. Their phonemic shape is different, but there is a certain resemblance which reflects their common origin. There meanings are also different but easily associated: they both denote articles of clothing.
Слайд 85: Sources of etymological doublets
Native word + borrowed word: shirt (Eng.) – skirt (Scand.) ; shrew (Eng.) – screw (Scand.) Both words are borrowed from different languages which are historically descended from the same route (из разных языков, но исторически происходят от одного источника) : captain (Lat.) – chieftain (French) ( вожак, главарь ), senior (Lat.) – sir (French), canal [ kə'næl ] (Lat.) – channel (French).
Слайд 86: Sources (источники) of etymological doublets
Both words are be borrowed from the same language but in different historical periods (из одного языка, но в разные исторические периоды) : travel (Norman borrowing) – travail (Parisian borrowing) ( тяжелый труд, работа ), corpse [kɔ:ps] (Norman borrowing) ( труп ) – corps [kɔ:] (Parisian borrowing) ( корпус, войсковой соединение )
Слайд 87: Sources of etymological doublets
Both words are native, but one of them originates from the other (оба исконные, одно происходит от другого) : history – story, phantasy – fancy ( иллюзия, воображение, каприз ), defence – fence, shadow – shade.
Слайд 88: Latino-French doublets
Latin English from Latin English from French uncia inch ounce
Слайд 89: Franco-French doublets
Norman Paris cannal channel captain chieftain
Слайд 90: Scandinavian-English doublets
Scandinavian English skirt shirt screech shriek
Слайд 91: Etymological triplets
– group of words of common root: hospital (L) – h ostel ( Norm.Fr ) – hotel ( Par.Fr ); to capture (L) – to catch (Norm. Fr) – to chase (Par. Fr).
Слайд 92: International words (интернациональные слова)
Words which are borrowed by several languages (заимствуются в несколько зыков). They convey concepts which are significant in the field of communication (важные аспекты коммуникации). Many of them are Latin and Greek origin. International words (интернациональные слова)
Names of sciences : philosophy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, linguistics, lexicology. Terms of art : music, theatre, drama, tragedy, comedy, artist, primadonna. Political terms : politics, policy, democracy, revolution, communism, progress. The English language contributed a number of international words to world languages : football, volley-ball, baseball, hockey, cricket, rugby, tennis, golf, etc.
Fruits and foodstuff imported from exotic countries : coffee, cocoa, chocolate, coca-cola, banana, mango, grapefruit. International words are often confused with other words which have the same origin but have diverged in meaning in different languages, e.g. extravagance 1) нелепость, сумасбродство, вздор; блажь; причуды 2) расточительность; мотовство – расточительность ; accurate – верный, правильный, точный
Последний слайд презентации: The basics of the English language (lexicology)
7. The international word-stock is also growing due to the words connected with: the development of science – automation, cybernetics, gene ; exotic words – kraal, orang-outang, anacond a ; the words in the field of sport – football, out, match; the words referring to clothing – sweater, tweed, shorts.