Презентация на тему: Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about

Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about higher nervous activity. The congenital and acquired forms of behavior.
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Instinctive reflexes
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
I ruled developments of a conditioned reflex
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Difference of instinctive and conditioned reflexes.
Types of conditioned reflexes
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Types of conditioned reflexes
3. Reflexes І - го and ІІ-go and higher orders.
Types of conditioned reflexes
Types of conditioned reflexes
Types of conditioned reflexes
Dynamic stereotype
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Formation of temporary communication on the way "cortex cortex " on Nominative to Pavlova
Formation of temporary communication on the way "cortex- subcortex -cortex" according to E.A.Asratyan
Formation of temporary communication by convergence on a neurone according to P.K.Anokhin
Mechanisms of formation of temporary communication in a cerebral cortex
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
External inhibition
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Internal inhibition
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Дифференцировочное inhibition
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Late inhibition
Late inhibition
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Transitional phases from exaltation to inhibition.
Subject: " The VND types, the doctrine of Nominative of Pavlov about I and II alarm systems".
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Nominative Pavlov framed the doctrine about the first and second alarm systems.
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
HNA specific types. А- average type : I сс =II сс B – artistic : I сс > II сс V - cogitative : I сс < II сс G - simultaneous prevalence : I сс и II сс - the
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
The structures of a brain participating in speech function
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Memory depends :
Physiological mechanisms of memory
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Disorders of memory
Subject: " Dream, dreams. Emotions. Motivations"
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Humoral theory of a dream
Nervous theory
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Biological value of a phase of a slow dream (orthodox phase): - sensitivity fall to external irritants
Biological value of a phase of a REM sleep (paradoxical phase): - processing and information adjournment in long-term memory, - restoration of mental processes
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Stages of emotions or tension degree according to G.I.Kositskomu
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Basis of the behavioural act is the functional system (FS) of P.K.Anokhin
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Neurophysiological mechanisms of afferentny synthesis
Role of various departments of a brain
Decision-making
Efferent synthesis
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Action
Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about
Basis of the behavioural act is the functional system (FS) of P.K.Anokhin
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Первый слайд презентации: Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about higher nervous activity. The congenital and acquired forms of behavior

The doctrine of Nominative of Pavlov about a conditioned reflex. Characteristic of conditioned reflexes. Technique of development of conditioned reflexes. Difference of conditioned reflexes from the unconditional. Types of conditioned reflexes, dynamic stereotype. Temporary communication – a basis of a conditioned reflex, education mechanisms. Analitiko-sintetichesky activity of a cortex brain.

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For the first time reflex nature of activity of the highest departments of a brain was shown I.M.Setchenov (1863) in the book "Brain reflexes. At the beginning of the XX century thanks to works of Nominative of Pavlov there was a radical revolution in studying of function of a cerebral cortex. The doctrine about higher nervous activity, as to a basis of behavior of the person is framed. It showed that all reflex reactions can be parted on two groups: instinctive and conditioned reflexes.

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Слайд 3: Instinctive reflexes

It is a series independent, being transferred by inheritance, the congenital reflex the mechanisms created in process филогенеза, for maintenance of the normal organism vital activities in it interaction with rather constant conditions of the surrounding mediums.

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Conditioned reflex – adaptive reaction of an organism to changing conditions of medium. They are individually specific, have alarm precautionary character and are formed on the basis of instinctive reflexes.

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The technique of development of conditioned reflexes is developed in laboratory of Nominative of Pavlov. The conditioned reflex at animals can be developed on the basis of an instinctive reflex when keeping a series of the basic rules

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Слайд 6: I ruled developments of a conditioned reflex

Coincidence in time of two stimuli: indifferent (light, sound) and unconditional (nutrition, pain). The indifferent stimulus has to precede the unconditional. The conditional stimulus according to the physiological characteristic and biological importance has to be more weak than the unconditional

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For formation of conditioned reflexes it is necessary active (vigorous) condition of a cerebral cortex. During formation of conditioned reflexes the cerebral cortex has to be free from other, foreign stimuli. The animal has to be absolutely healthy. Fixing of conditioned reflexes requires a repeated combination of conditional and unconditional signals.

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Technique of development of a conditioned reflex

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Development of a conditioned reflex on Nominative to Pavlova Fistula for the saliva collecting Call (conditional stimulus) Nutrition (the unconditional stimulus)

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Tool conditioned reflex Педаль Кормушка

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Слайд 11: Difference of instinctive and conditioned reflexes

Instinctive reflexes Conditioned reflexes 1. Congenital; 2. Specific; 3. Reflex arch constant (fixed); 4. The reflex arch becomes isolated in subcortical structures; 5. Constants and strong reflexes; 6. Are observed on the adequate stimulus operating on a specific receptive field. 1. Acquired; 2. Individual; 3. Reflex arch changeable, "temporary communication"; 4. Cerebral cortex; 5. Changeable; 6. Are developed on any indifferent stimulus.

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Слайд 12: Types of conditioned reflexes

І. By a development technique: 1. Cash: a) Coinciding (0,5-1 sec.); b) Korotkoostavlennye (3 - 5 sec.);.

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c) Normal (10-30 sec.) d) Dlitelnoostavlennye (30 - 60сек); e) Late (1-5 min.) .

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Слайд 14: Types of conditioned reflexes

2. Trace.

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Слайд 15: 3. Reflexes І - го and ІІ-go and higher orders

I order II order III order

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Слайд 16: Types of conditioned reflexes

4. Summarized. Call + пища = 8 drops of a saliva Light + nutrition = 12 drops of a saliva Ring and light + nutrition = 20 drops of a saliva 5. Generalized 1000 Hz + nutrition – salivation 1000 Hz – salivation 1100 Hz - salivation 900 Hz salivation

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Слайд 17: Types of conditioned reflexes

6. Differentiated. 1000 Hz + nutrition – salivation 1000 Hz – salivation 1100 Hz - we don't support with nutrition (there is no salivation) 900 Hz - we don't support with nutrition (there is no salivation)

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Слайд 18: Types of conditioned reflexes

7. Complex (simultaneous, consecutive, dynamic stereotype) Simultaneous (on some stimuli one reinforcement is given) Consecutive (on some consecutive stimuli one reinforcement is given)

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Слайд 19: Dynamic stereotype

The recorded system from the conditioned and instinctive reflexes which have been iced over in a uniform functional complex. It is formed under the influence of in the same way repeating changes and influences of external and internal medium.

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call + food call – 12 saliva thaw light + food light – 15 saliva thaw mechanical + food mechanical – 8 saliva thaw Mechanical – 12 saliva thaw call – 15 saliva thaw light – 8 saliva thaw

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8. Imitative. They are formed without active participation in process of their development. Arise at observation over development of conditioned reflexes at other animal or the person. To Naprima at children reche -motive reactions and formation of social skills.

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ІІ. In the location of receptors: 1. Exteroceptive ; 2. Proprioceptive ; 3. Interoceptive. ІІІ. By the nature of a conditional stimulus: 1. Natural; 2. Artificial. IV. On biological value: 1. Alimentary; 2. Defensive; 3. the sexual; 4. Approximate.

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V. On nature of response: 1. Vasomotor; 2. Sektrotornye. 3. Motor; 4. Excretory, etc. VI. Special type of a reflex – a reflex for a while. VII. On influence on process course: 1. Excitative ; 2. Brake.

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Instincts - the difficult congenital standard adaptive mental phenomena based on motivations and realized in the form of unconditional and reflex behavioural reactions

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Instincts are a difficult complex of instinctive reflexes with conditioned-reflex stratifications. Realization of instincts the leading role is played by subthalamic area and limbic system.

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At the heart of formation of a conditioned reflex temporary communication lies. This functional association of two or several centers of a cortex and the subcortical structures providing exercise of reactions to conditional and unconditional stimuli. This communication depending on conditions of finding of an organism can be fixed or disappear.

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Theories of short circuit of temporary communication The theory of two cortical centers of Nominative of Pavlov – irradiation, a majorant and protoreny ways Theory of corticosubcortical communications ( E.A.Aasratyan ) The convergence theory on P.K.Anokhin's 1 neurone - 1 stage: generalization, 2nd stage: concentration or convergence

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Слайд 28: Formation of temporary communication on the way "cortex cortex " on Nominative to Pavlova

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Слайд 29: Formation of temporary communication on the way "cortex- subcortex -cortex" according to E.A.Asratyan

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Слайд 30: Formation of temporary communication by convergence on a neurone according to P.K.Anokhin

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Слайд 31: Mechanisms of formation of temporary communication in a cerebral cortex

1. Exaltation irradiation. 2. Dominant exaltation of the center. 3. Protoreniye of a way. 4. Convergence. 5. Morphological changes in synapses (decrease of a synoptic cleft, growth of the shipikovy device). 6. Biochemical changes (information coding in RNA and DNA molecules, synthesis change proteins ). 7. Neyrogiya participation (synthesis of the special substances facilitating synoptic transfer, promotes a miyelinikhzation of naked nervous bombways ).

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Studying conditioned reflexes, Nominative Pavlov came to a conclusion that all activity of a brain is under construction of two processes: - exaltations; - inhibitions. Rasprostreniye exaltations can provide the generalized reactions covering a series of organs and systems. Concentration of process can provide narrowing of reflex reaction, its focus. Inhibition can be generalized and concentrated. There are some types of cortical inhibition during which exercise conditioned reflexes are oppressed.

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Types of inhibition External (unconditional) inhibition arises: 1. At action of a new stimulus 2. When giving a strong stimulus ( ultraboundary ).

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The first type of external inhibition arises right after giving a postorenny stimulus, i.e. doesn't demand development. In some cases it can be characterized as approximate reaction. There is a reflex: "what the such? " Previous reflex activity thus stops.

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Слайд 35: External inhibition

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The second type of unconditional inhibition received the name - "ULTRABOUNDARY INHIBITION". It arises at excessive augmentation of force and duration of action of a conditional stimulus. I.e. force of a stimulus exceeds operability of cortical cells. This inhibition has protective value.

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Слайд 38: Internal inhibition

Internal (conditional) inhibition demands special development. The biological sense of internal inhibition consists that new environmental conditions demand change of conditioned-reflex activity.

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There are four types of internal (conditional) cortical inhibition: ugasatelny differentsirovochny the late conditional brake.

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Ugasatelnoye - inhibition develops if not to support the developed reflex with an unconditional stimulus. Thus the conditional stimulus loses value of a signal and reaction to it is slowed down, but the conditioned reflex doesn't disappear and can be restored if again to support it with an unconditional stimulus.

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Differentsirovochnoye inhibition arises at development of a differentsirovochny conditioned reflex. For example, if not to support one sound, on it reaction, and other sound disappears to support that on it there is a conditioned reflex.

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Слайд 42: Дифференцировочное inhibition

М - 100гц food М - 50 гц М -100 гц

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Late inhibition arises when the reinforcement of a prearranged signal is carried out by an unconditional stimulus with delay (2-3 min.).

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Слайд 44: Late inhibition

call food food food call call

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Слайд 45: Late inhibition

call food food food call call

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The conditional brake arises in those cases when to a conditional stimulus on which the reflex is developed, to add a new stimulus and a complex not to support. Then the reflex to be braked as new stimulus to become a conditional brake.

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Dynamics of the main cortical processes (exaltation and inhibition). Irradiation - exaltation diffusion from the central center on a surrounding zone. Concentration - opposite process reduction of a zone of the center of exaltation.

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Induction – targeting of opposite process (exaltation and inhibition). Happens the following types: The simultaneous The consecutive The positive The negative.

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In the course of formation of new conditioned reflexes, in the course of their fading there is a gradual change of process of exaltation with inhibition. By Pavlov's works and his employees it is shown that change though quickly happens, but not instantly, and gradually.

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Слайд 50: Transitional phases from exaltation to inhibition

I.Уравнительная. When the conditional stimulus of various force causes one effect II. Paradoxical. The size of conditioned reflexes decreases by a strong boring and is enlarged by the weak. III. Ultraparadoxical. It is characterized by that a positive conditional stimulus gives brake effect, and negative on the contrary causes positive reaction. All these observations allowed Pavlov I.P. to develop a technique of experimental neurosises. IV. Тормозная. When there is no reaction to any boring.

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Слайд 51: Subject: " The VND types, the doctrine of Nominative of Pavlov about I and II alarm systems"

The doctrine of Nominative of Pavlov about a conditioned reflex. Characteristic of conditioned reflexes. Technique of development of conditioned reflexes. Difference of conditioned reflexes from the unconditional. Types of conditioned reflexes, dynamic stereotype. Temporary communication – a basis of a conditioned reflex, education mechanisms. Analitiko-sintetichesky activity of a cortex brain.

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Modern ideas of the VND types are substantially identified with four types of human temperament allocated still with Ancient Greek doctor Hippocrates (ІV in B.C.) on the basis of observation over behavior of people. The choleric; The melancholic; The Flegmatic ; The sanguine.

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Nominative Pavlov, studying development and fixing of conditioned reflexes at dogs, I defined that an important role in formation like nervous activity is played by properties of cortical processes: FORCE, STEADINESS, MOBILITY. Force is degree of expression of processes of exaltation and inhibition. Steadiness – a ratio of processes of exaltation and inhibition in total amount of biological reactions. Mobility – rate of emergence and speed of change of processes of exaltation and inhibition. Taking into account these properties of Nominative Pavlov allocated four VND types.

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Live type - strong, counterbalanced and mobile. It is characterized by big energy, force, mobility. Corresponds to sanguine type according to Hippocrates.

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The quiet – strong, counterbalanced, inactive. It is characterized by the sufficient force of processes of exaltation and inhibition, their rather low mobility. Corresponds to flegmatic type according to Hippocrates.

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The impetuous – strong, unbalanced, mobile, with prevalence of processes of exaltation. Corresponds to choleric type according to Hippocrates.

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Weak (inert) – unbalanced, inactive with prevalence of brake process over excitative. Corresponds to melancholic type according to Hippocrates.

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The HNA types are formed on a basis as genotype, and phenotype, i.e. on genetically put features of nervous system all variety of influences of education, conditions of environment, situations in which there is an organism is imposed.

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Слайд 60: Nominative Pavlov framed the doctrine about the first and second alarm systems

The first alarm system is visual, acoustical and other sensual signals which proceed from world around and internal medium of an organism. It is the general for the person and animals.

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The second alarm system – verbal, inherent only to the person. As its signals words said, heard, read serve. By means of the word transition from a sensual image of the first alarm system to representations of the second alarm system is carried out.

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Pavlov allocated with nominative the HNA specific types inherent in the person in connection with existence of speech (ІІ-y alarm system), its ideational and creative activity.

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The first type – art. People with a pronounced visual and acoustical susceptibility of environment, i.e. prevalence І - oh alarm system, the concrete, figurative thinking (in the most part it is artists and musicians) is expressed.

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The second type – ideational. Differs predilection to logical and abstakty thinking, prevalence ІІ-oh alarm system (scientists, philosophers, mathematics).

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The third type - admixed. Properties of perception of environment and thinking are expressed to the same extent.

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Слайд 66: HNA specific types. А- average type : I сс =II сс B – artistic : I сс > II сс V - cogitative : I сс < II сс G - simultaneous prevalence : I сс и II сс - the art and cogitative

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Speech functions : The word – "a signal of signals" Means of social communication Educational tool and self-expression Sposobstuyet to thinking The information Participation in memory mechanisms The physiology of speech function includes rechevospriyaty and a rechereproduktion.

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In the left temporal share there is a center of heard speech and the center touch speeches (the center to Vernika ). At destruction of this zone of people hears, but doesn't understand value of that hears.

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In a frontal lobe of the left hemisphere is the motor center (Brock). At its destruction of people loses ability to speak, but understands when to it address orally or in writing. In an occipital share there is a center of visible speech (reading the letter)

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Primary speech zones of bark Zone Brock Zone To Vernika

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Слайд 71: The structures of a brain participating in speech function

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Speech violations: Motor aphasia (Brock's frontal aphasia) – can't say the word, but understands speech Touch aphasia (temporal aphasia to Vernika ) – frustration of perception of speech, i.e. doesn't understand the word Alex – loss of ability to read silently and aloud Amuziya – frustration of musical perception Amnestichesky (parietal) aphasia – a zabyvaniye of separate words, is more often than nouns. Akalkuliya – account frustration Agraphia (the bottom frontal crinkle of the left hemisphere and sites of parietal bark is struck) – loss of ability to write

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Functional asymmetry of a brain The left and right hemispheres are responsible for different functions, i.e. there is a mezhpolusharny asymmetry.

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The left hemisphere (partially dominating): Verbal perception (verbal); Temporary relations; Analysis of incentives; Consecutive perception; Easily distinguishable subjects; Familiar subjects; Similarity establishment; The abstract thinking, the generalized recognition;

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Right hemisphere : Nonverbal perception (visual); Spatial relations; Synthetic activity. Simultaneous perception; Concrete thinking; Difficult distinguishable subjects; Unfamiliar subjects; Distinction establishment; Complete perception.

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Memory – this all-biological property accumulation, storages, processings and information vosprozvedeniye. Memory consists of 4 processes : Storing; Storage; Recognition; Reproduction.

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As a result of process of learning there are physical, chemical and morphological changes in nervous structures which remain some time and have essential impact on reflex reactions carried out by an organism.

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Set of structurally functional changes in nervous educations as a result of learning process, is called ENGRAMMA (trace) of operating irritants.

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Types of memory : 1. Specific is the information which has been saved up as a result of evolution throughout the millennia. These are unconditional reflex instincts. 2. Individual - information acquired in individual life and being realized in conditioned reflexes.

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In a manifestation form The figurative Emotional (storing of the endured feelings, inspiration, pleasure, fear) Logical or verbal The touch visual (at artists) acoustical (at musicians) tactile (at blind) 5. Mechanical or motor (at athletes, ballerinas)

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the motor the figurative verbally - logical the emotional

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Types of memory : According to the temporary characteristic or duration Instant ( ikonichesky ) - is stored no more 100-150ms Consists in formation of an instant print, a trace of operating incentive in receptor structure. Biological value – recognition of images and touch signals analizatorny structures of a brain.

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2. Short-term (quick) - provides performance of the current behavioural and cogitative operations. In a basis reverberation processes lie. Remains from several seconds to several minutes

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3. Long-term - it is stored for life Process of transformation of short-term memory in the long-term – memory consolidation. The mechanism - approach of permanent changes of synoptic conductivity as result of repeated excitement of nervous cages and allocation by glial cages of the substances improving synoptic transfer.

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Слайд 87: Memory depends :

from age health interest trenirovannost motivations

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Слайд 88: Physiological mechanisms of memory

How the person the imprinted events are reproduced it is possible to define level and force of manifestation of memory. Distinguish three levels of memory : 1. the highest level – reproducing memory, literal reproduction. 2. level – identifying memory, identifies earlier seen, a subject, the text, a picture. 3. level – facilitating memory. Independently doesn't remember, but at new studying less time is required.

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Memory theories The conditioned-reflex - at the heart of memory lies education and the subsequent preservation of temporary communications. The theory neural models - the Physical point of view. Neural models represent as group of nervous cages, communications their steady in time information on memory bear electronic signals. When these signals repeatedly approach to the same synapses, change their electric and mechanical characteristic that facilitates formation of conditioned reflexes. Nervous electronic impulses being grouped in time and space form dynamic neural models.

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3. Associative - psychological (will be coordinated with the theory of neural models). Remembered events, concepts are connected so that "revival" of one conducts to "revival" of others. This theory says that memoirs are reproduced in the same sequence in which they arose for the first time. It is connected with the theory of neural models (those neurons which are more closely to each other located are quicker raised, activated, is closer on arising representations). Associations are very important at reminiscence.

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4. Chemical – it is considered that storing process is influenced positively by RNA, strengthening a proteinaceous exchange and increasing excitement processes in neurons, than formation of temporary communication in a cerebral cortex is facilitated. Specific proteins N-peptides are received.

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Слайд 92: Disorders of memory

Storing violation - fixings Storages – retention Reproduction – a reproduction Amnesia – impossibility of reproduction of the past, skills. Gipermneziya – reminiscence flows (an initial stage of intoxication) Gipomneziya – easing of memory of a retention, a reproduction first of all names, dates. Anterogradny amnesia – inability to assimilation of new information ( Karsakov's syndrome), is lost ability to information transfer from primary and in secondary memory Retrograde amnesia – loss of ability to extraction of information saved up (concussion, a stroke, an electroshock) under hypnosis comes back to memories. Hysterical amnesia – total loss of memory – purely functional – it is frequent after stresses.

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Слайд 93: Subject: " Dream, dreams. Emotions. Motivations"

Plan : 1. Dream, types of a dream. 2. Dream mechanisms. 3. Emotions. Classification of emotions. 4. Theories of emotions. 5. Motivations. 6. Architecture of the complete behavioural act.

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Dream – a condition of an organism which is characterized by considerable decrease in all functions of an organism, partial shutdown of consciousness. Types of a dream: 1. Physiological dream: - polyphase dream at children; - monophase dream at adults; - seasonal dream; 2. Hypnotic dream. 3. Electrodream, electroanaesthesia 4. Pathological dream: - narcotic dream; - somnambolizm (sleepwalking); - lethargical sleep.

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The physiological dream consists of two alternating phases: - slow or orthodox dream of 75-85% REM or paradoxical sleep (15-25%).

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Dream stages : 1. Somnolence - disappearance a rhythm alpha, 1-7 min. There is MDG 2. Emergence of sleepy spindles on EEG – to 50% of a dream. DG isn't present 3. Emergence delta flounce, 20%. DG isn't present 4. Paradoxical dream – a beta a rhythm (a rhythm of active wakefulness), flashes an alpha of a rhythm, BDG.

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Dream theories : 1. Humoral (chemical); 2. Nervous theory - The theory of the poured braking of Nominative of Pavlov. - V. Gess's theory 3. Theory of information deficiency. 4. Vazomotorny 6. Histologic

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Слайд 98: Humoral theory of a dream

1. Accumulation of products of a metabolism in time of the period of wakefulness. 2. Availability of chemicals гипнотоксинов, causing a dream - серотонин, GAMK

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Слайд 99: Nervous theory

1. Nominative theory the Pavlova -poured cortical braking, i.e. the internal braking irradiating on bark and extending on underlying departments of CNS 2. V. Gess's theory - excitement of a ventro -medial kernel гипоталамуса

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3. Theory of information deficiency restriction of touch inflow of information. 4. The Vazomotorny theory connects dream emergence with changes brain blood supplies 5. The histologic theory believes that emergence of a dream depends from reduction of a synoptic crack and shortenings of dendrites

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Слайд 101: Biological value of a phase of a slow dream (orthodox phase): - sensitivity fall to external irritants

Vegetative shifts decrease in frequency of warm reductions and arterial pressure, breath delay

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Слайд 102: Biological value of a phase of a REM sleep (paradoxical phase): - processing and information adjournment in long-term memory, - restoration of mental processes

Vegetative shifts - "a vegetative storm“ Arrhythmic pulse, Arrhythmic breath, Increase AP, Increase in frequency of warm reductions, FME – fast movements of eyeballs

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Dreams – always accompany a dream and are more often connected with a phase of a paradoxical dream. Dreams are explained by that in bark remain less braked (awake, sentry) the centers being in a condition of a dominant. I.M.Setchenov characterized them as "unknown combinations of skilled impressions".

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Emotion (I induce, I excite) – a physiological condition having pronounced subjective coloring. Emotions is a component of motivations.

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Distinguish concepts: 1. Emotional stress - Эустресс – a positive stress (high spirits... ) - Distress - a negative stress (leads to a disease) 2. Affect – rough emotion when the person loses control over himself. 3. Mood – long, weaker emotion (" +" and "-").

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Theories of emotions: 1. C.Darvina's theory (instinctive action) - Emotions, as рудимет expedient instinctive actions 2. P.K.Anokhin's biological theory - Emotions, as the product of long evolution directed on the adaptation of an organism to life situations. Emergence of requirements is accompanied "-" emotion, and their satisfaction – "+" by emotion.

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3. P. V. Simonov's information theory - Emotions, as reflection by a brain of size of requirement and satisfaction Э = П (requirement) x ( ИН – ИС ); ИН – necessary information, Ис – existing information. Если П=0, то Э «нет» Если Ис < Ин,то Э «-» Если Ис > Ин, то Э «+»

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4. G.I.Kositskogo's theory - Emotions, as reflection by a brain of factors of time, energy resources and organism opportunities Э or СН = Ц х (Ин Эн Вн – Ис Эс Вс ) Э – emotion, СН - condition of tension, Ц- purpose Ин, Эн, Вн, – necessary information, energy, time Ис Эс Вс – existing information, energy, time.

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Слайд 112: Stages of emotions or tension degree according to G.I.Kositskomu

CH-I (condition of tension) - reflects a condition of attention, mobilization of activity, working capacity increase. It is very useful to an organism. CH-II ( sthenic negative emotion) - is characterized maximum increase in energy resources of an organism and limit tension of bodies and systems (anger, indignation)

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CH-III ( asthenic negative emotion) - is characterized by exhaustion of energy resources of an organism (horror, melancholy, decrease in intelligence, a panic …) CH-IV (neurosis) - represents a disease, VND failure, "breakage" of a number of regulatory mechanisms of an organism

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Motivations are the emotionally painted aspirations of the person and animals to satisfaction of leading requirements. Motivations leads to purposeful search behavior. Interests – emotional manifestation of informative need of the person. Types of motivations: 1. The lowest (biological, vitalny ). 2. The highest: - the social. - the ideal.

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INTEGRATIVE ACTIVITY BRAIN AND FORMATION BEHAVIOURAL ACT

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Integrative activity of nervous system – generalizing activity, underlies the behavioural act. The main and specific manifestation of activity of CNS is the reflex.

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According to the classical theory, the reflex comes to an end with action. Nominative Pavlov, then P.K.Anokhin showed that the reflex act doesn't come to the end with reciprocal action, and there is an analysis of results of action by nervous system and comparison of the valid result to the desirable.

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Information on result of action arrives in CNS on feedback therefore the concept about a reflex ring is entered. The behavior of an organism is defined by result of perfect action.

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According to modern representations the reflex is a difficult dynamic system with feedback. Basis of physiological structure of any behavioural act is the functional system.

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Functional systems are morfofunktsionalny devices of self-control in an organism. The doctrine about functional system was developed by P.K.Anokhin (1935).

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Слайд 121: Basis of the behavioural act is the functional system (FS) of P.K.Anokhin

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Formation of the behavioural act proceeds in some stages : afferentny synthesis; making decision on the functioning purpose; formation of the program of action and action acceptor; Result of action and return afferentation.

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The initial, nodal mechanism of the behavioural act is afferentny synthesis – AC AC– processing, comparison, synthesis of received information is the most responsible moment of integrative activity of a brain which defines highlights of the behavioural act – what to do how to do when to work.

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Into structure AC enter: Dominating motivation - the dominating requirement connected with a condition of an organism at present, evolved internal requirement. (What to do? ) The starting afferentation – is caused by direct action of an irritant. (When to do? ) Obstanovochny afferentation – caused by action of a certain situation. (It is possible to do? ) Memory. (How to do? ) Approximate and research reaction (SHOUTING. ).

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Thus the behavioural act is caused not only incentive, irritation as it was approved by the classical reflex theory, and and other components, from them the most important role is played by dominating motivation. In the absence of motivation there is no behavioural act, the organism doesn't react to incentive. The behavior has to be motivated.

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In the solution of a question how to make action a significant role play memory mechanisms. First of all, it is genetic memory to which congenital biological motivations are constantly addressed. Isn't less significant and individually acquired memory. Thus at a stage the EXPERT the issues "what to do" (on the basis of external and internal irritations), "when to do" (on the basis of special starting factors) are resolved.

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Слайд 127: Neurophysiological mechanisms of afferentny synthesis

Ascending activating influences of subcrustal educations on a cerebral cortex. Descending influences of bark on subcrustal educations. Reverberation of vozbuzhdeniye between bark and subcrustal educations. Mechanisms of convergence of vozbuzhdeniye of various touch and biological quality on cerebral cortex neurons.

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Слайд 128: Role of various departments of a brain

Processes of afferentny synthesis happen in various departments of CNS. However the leading role in EXPERTS mechanisms belongs to KGM, and first of all – to her frontal lobes. The stage AC is a stage of dynamic search of information, some kind of "a stage of doubts". The EXPERT comes to an end with a decision-making stage.

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Слайд 129: Decision-making

At a stage of acceptance of the decision the dominating line of conduct is developed. After a stage of acceptance of the decision the stage of efferent synthesis begins.

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Слайд 130: Efferent synthesis

Efferent synthesis – effector part of the behavioural act consists from: Action programs Action Acceptor (AA) Thus on a phase of decision-making the model on which the result of action will be checked is under construction.

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For execution of action of CNS sends to executive body of team to action. At the same time on коллатералям axons "copies" of teams to special neurons of the action acceptor (AA) are transferred The HELL is the device perceiving, comparing, approving results of the action, comparing results of action with "copy".

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Слайд 132: Action

Behavioural action is always directed on achievement of potrebny result, on active interaction of living beings with environment factors.

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Signals of results of action on feedback arrive in the arterial pressure and are compared to "copy". If they coincide, action comes to an end if isn't present, it leads to creation of new teams of action, afferentny synthesis (AC) mobilization

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Последний слайд презентации: Subject: General principles of the organization of behavior. Concept about: Basis of the behavioural act is the functional system (FS) of P.K.Anokhin

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