Первый слайд презентации: SIW Theme: “Physiology of properties and composition of bile”
Done by: Iskakbayeva M., student of 350 group Checked by: Usenova O.A
Слайд 2: Plan
Introduction Significance of bile in ancient time Secretion of bile Composition of human bile Bile functions Regulation of bile Biliary excretion Pathology Investigation of bile Conclusion References
Слайд 3: Introduction
Bile (Latin: bilis, etc., Greek. Χολή ) - yellow, brown or greenish, bitter taste, which has an odor released by the liver and accumulated in the gall bladder fluid.
Слайд 4: Bile
Bile is a composition of the following materials: water (85%), bile salts (10%), mucus and pigments (3%), fats (1%), inorganic salts (0.7%) and cholesterol (0.3 %).
Слайд 5: Significance of bile in ancient time
In ancient times the bile fluid was considered no less important than the blood. But if the blood was for the ancient bearer of the soul, the bearer of the nature of the bile. It was believed that the abundance of light in the body of bile makes the person unstable, gusty. These people were called choleric. But an excess of dark bile supposedly causes depression, gloom, peculiar melancholic. Note: in this and in other word there is the syllable "cold", translated from the Greek “ chole ”means bile. It later emerged that the nature of light and dark bile is the same, and neither one nor the other to the nature of man has nothing to do (though still annoying people, called the caustic bile), but has a direct relation to digestion.
Слайд 6: Secretion of bile
The main component of bile - bile acids (67% - excluding water). Half - primary bile acidscholic and henodezoksiholic. Secondary: dezoksiholic, lithocholic,and ursodeoxycholic acid alloholic. Bile acids in bile is in the form of conjugates (compounds) with glycine and taurine:glikoholic, glikohenodezoksiholic, taurocholic, and other so-called binary acids. Bile contains a significant amount of sodium and potassium ions, so that it has an alkaline reaction, and the bile acids and their conjugates are sometimes treated as "bile salts".
Слайд 7: The content of some organic substances in the liver and gallbladder bile
Слайд 8: The content of inorganic substances in liver and gallbladder bile
Слайд 9: Ion content in the liver and gallbladder bile
Ions Liver bile, mmol /l Gallbladder, mmol /l Na+ 165.0 280.0 K+ 5.0 15.0 Ca2+ 2.4-2.5 12.0-13.0 Cl - ~90 14.5-15.0 Bicarbanates (HCO3) 45-46 ~8
Слайд 10: Secretion of bile
22% of bile - phospholipids. In addition, the bile are proteins ( immunoglobulins A and M)- 4.5%, cholesterol - 4%, bilirubin - 0.3%, mucus, organic anions (glutathione and plantsteroids ), metals (copper, zinc, lead, indium, magnesium, mercury and others), lipophilicxenobiotics
Слайд 11: Function of bile
Bile carries a range of features, most of which is associated with digestion, providing achange of gastric digestion in the intestines, removing the hazardous effect of pancreatic juice enzymes pepsin and creating favorable conditions for these enzymes.
Слайд 12: Function of bile
Bile acids in bile, emulsify fats and participate in micelle formation and stimulates motility of the small intestine, stimulates the production of mucus and gastrointensinalnyhhormones cholecystokinin and secretin, prevent bacterial adhesion and proteinaggregates. Bile is also involved in the implementation of the excretory function. Cholesterol, bilirubinand other substances can not be filtered by the kidneys and their separation from the body is through the bile. Excreted in the feces 70% located in the bile cholesterol (30%reabsorbed by the intestines), bilirubin, and the above-mentioned metals, steroids, glutathione.
Слайд 13: Regulation of bile
Choleresis is continuous, but its intensity changes due to regulatory influences. Reinforce the act of feeding choleresis adopted food. Reflex changes during stimulation of choleresis inner receptors digestive tract and other internal organs and reflex action. Parasympathetic cholinergic nerve fibers (exposure) increase, and the sympatheticadrenergic - reduce choleresis.
Слайд 14: Bile excretion
The movement of bile in the biliary apparatus due to the difference of pressure in its parts and in the duodenum, the state of the sphincters of the extrahepatic biliary tract. They are the following sphincters: the confluence of the cystic and common hepatic duct in the neck of the gallbladder and the terminal division of common bile duct and ampulla sphincter or Oddi. Muscle tone of the sphincters determines the direction of movement of bile.
Слайд 15: Bile excretion
The pressure in the biliary secretory apparatus created by the pressure of bile production and smooth muscle contractions of the ducts and gallbladder. These reductions are consistent with the tone of the sphincter and are regulated by neural and humoral mechanisms
Слайд 16: For the study of bile used method of fractional duodenal sounding. In carrying out the procedure are five phases:
Basal secretion of bile, during which outlines the contents of the duodenum and common bile duct. Duration 10 - 15 minutes. Closed sphincter of Oddi. Duration 3 - 6 min. A portion of bile flow duration 3 - 5 minutes. During this time, released from 3 to 5 mllight brown bile. Begins with the opening of the sphincter of Oddi and ends with the opening of the sphincter Lyutkensa. During phases I and III bile released at a rate of 1 - 2ml / min. Allocation of gallbladder bile. Portia B. It starts with the opening of the sphincterLyutkensa and emptying of the gallbladder, which is accompanied by the appearance ofdark olive bile (portion B), and ends with the appearance of amber-yellow bile ( portionC ). Duration 20 - 30 minutes. Allocation of hepatic bile. Portia C. Phase begins from the moment of discontinuation ofa dark olive-bile. Duration 10 - 20 minutes. Facts Serving Size 10 - 30 ml.
Слайд 17: Normal levels of bile
Basal bile (phase I and III, a portion of A) should be transparent, have a pale straw color, density, 1007-1015, to be slightly alkaline. Cystic bile (phase IV, a portion of B) must be transparent, have a dark olive color, density, 1016-1035, acidity - pH 6.5-7.5. Hepatic bile (phase V, a portion of C) should be transparent, have a golden color, density, 1007-1011, acidity - pH 7,5-8,2.
Слайд 18: What diseases are associated with bile
Congenital anomalies of the biliary ducts Damage to the biliary tract Cholelithiasis Acute cholecystitis Acalculous cholecystitis Postcholecystectomy syndrome Pain in the gall bladder with no stones in it Benign tumors Malignant tumors of the Tumors of the gallbladder and bile ducts
Слайд 19: Conclusion
Bile or gall is a bitter-tasting, dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the process of digestion of lipids in the small intestine. In many species, bile is stored in the gallbladder and upon eating is discharged into the duodenum. Bile is a composition of the following materials: water (85%), bile salts (10%), mucus and pigments (3%), fats (1%), inorganic salts (0.7%) and cholesterol (0.3%). It one of necessary substances in our body.