Первый слайд презентации: 6 signs that spring has arrived; from the world of wildlife
Слайд 3: Facts about toads and frogs
One of the most familiar signs of spring is the appearance of jelly-like spawn in ponds. In spring, frogs and toads emerge and begin to spawn following hibernation. Frog spawn is easily differentiated from toad spawn because it appears in large balls or clumps, whereas toad spawn is found in long chains attached to plants and weeds. Male frogs will return to the same pond in which they matured and will continue to return to the same spot for the rest of their lives. If you’d like frogs to keep returning to your pond each year, make sure you keep a small gap or hole in fences so that they can access your garden. While immense balls of spawn may make a pond seem overcrowded – as much of 90% of tadpoles are being lost to predators – the actual number of eggs that survive to adulthood will be a fraction of the spawn you see. It takes 13-16 weeks for tadpoles to mature and, as spring progresses into summer, tiny froglets can be found leaving the pond around June. That said, there is evidence that frogs and toads are breeding earlier, which could be due to milder weather in winter months, so spawn can appear in the pond as early as February.
Слайд 4: Words to understand
Familiar signs – well-known/ recognized To follow hibernation - to hibernate – to sleep To appear in large balls or clumps To mature – to become an adult A fraction of – a tiny amount of A froglet – a small frog/ an immature frog Due to milder weather – to introduce the reason as early as February
Слайд 5: A clump of
A clump of things such as trees or plants is a small group of them growing together. a clump of trees bordering a side road A group / a cluster / a bunch
Слайд 6: Migrating Birds
As the weather warms up, many of our migrant birds return to the UK and chiffchaffs are usually one of the first in March. They can be heard singing their names in a repetitive ‘ chiff chaff’ song from the tops of trees. Swallows, cuckoos and house martins usually arrive in April, followed by swifts in early May. Many migrating birds are arriving as much as two weeks early compared to a century ago and are also leaving later. Warmer weather is likely to be the cause of early arrivals, while late leavers could be due to females laying more than one clutch of eggs, thanks to the longer breeding season. Birds such as the blackcap which are arriving later and leaving later, are increasing in number, which would support this hypothesis.
Слайд 7: Work on pronunciation
Migrant - / m aɪ grənt / Repetitive -/ rɪp e tɪtɪv / monotonous, boring, dull Hypothesis- / haɪp ɒ θ ɪsɪs /- theory/ assumption Minty - (ˈ mɪnti / having the smell of mint Larvae- /ˈ lɑːvi :/ an immature free-living form of many animals that develops into a different adult form by metamorphosis Floral - / fl ɔː rəl / contains flowers Identification - ( aɪd e ntɪfɪk eɪ ʃ ə n / Indicate - ( ɪ ndɪkeɪt / to show/ to suggest Component - ( kəmp oʊ nənt /part/ piece/ unit/ item Series - ( s ɪə riːz / a chain/ a course/ a sequence
The first bumblebees start to return in March and these will be queens who have survived the winter months and are in search of spring flowers. Bombus terrestris, the buff-tailed bumblebee queen, is the largest UK species and is usually the first bee to emerge. This is the first stage of the bumblebee lifecycle as the queen feeds and begins to search for a suitable nesting site such as a hole in the ground, bird box or even under garden sheds. She will lay her first clutch of eggs and these will become the female worker bees. The larvae are fed by the queen so throughout spring you will see queen bumblebees busily collecting pollen to feed their growing workers, who will emerge as adults in the summer.
Слайд 10: THE 10 BEST FLOWERS FOR ATTRACTING BEES
Urban beekeeping is a great way to attract bees and is all the rage, but what does the honey taste like? You’d be forgiven for thinking decidedly ‘urban’. Actually, because of London’s many lime ( Tilia ) trees, it’s often minty, says Camilla Goddard, a beekeeper with hives across the capital, including on the rooftop garden of Soho’s Ham Yard Hotel. “Lime flowers give honey a minty taste,” she says. “Earlier in the year the honey tastes quite floral, while later on it develops deeper, barley flavours.”
Слайд 11: The nature of the honey can change
Depending on where bees are kept, the nature of the honey can change. “In Greenwich, there are lots of horse chestnuts and I can see their red pollen on the bees’ legs,” Camilla says. In Notting Hill and Kensington, Camilla’s bees collect so much pollen from lime trees she can smell it in the hives. Bees near railway tracks visit brambles later in summer, whereas in spring, it’s crocus and the first of the year’s dandelion flowers that provide bees with their food. It goes to show that while they have their favourites, bees will take pollen and nectar where they can get it, and it doesn’t matter whether the plants are native to the UK or not. “The important thing is to choose plants with single flowers so they can easily access the pollen,” explains Camilla. “And plant blocks of the same thing, rather than a mixture of different plants,” she advises – once bees have found a plant they like, they’ll visit the same plant over and over again.
Слайд 13: The Big Butterfly Count
As spring brings out the warmer weather butterflies begin to emerge, and with their colourful wings and gentle fluttering it’s easy to understand why they are such a popular sign of spring. The arrival of butterflies is also an important measure of the effects of weather on our wildlife. Many of the UK’s rare spring butterflies in 2017 emerged three weeks earlier compared to 2016 and a week earlier than the average. The Butterfly Conservation believe this to be as a result of milder weather. The Big Butterfly Count is a great way for you to get involved with the study and conservation of butterfly populations. Simply pick a spot such as a garden or park from where to watch for 15 minutes and record any butterflies you see using an identification sheet.
Слайд 14: How to take part
The Big Butterfly Count is a nationwide citizen science survey aimed at helping us assess the health of our environment. It was launched in 2010 and has rapidly become the world's biggest survey of butterflies. Over 113,500 citizen scientists took part in 2019, submitting 116,009 counts of butterflies and day-flying moths from across the UK. Big Butterfly Count 2020 ran from Friday 17 July to Sunday 9 August. All the counts can be viewed on the interactive map. If you are doing your count on a walk, then simply total up the number of each butterfly species that you see during the 15 minutes. Also please remember that if you don’t see any butterflies then let us know that too. It is very important that we know if there are areas where butterflies are not being seen – this may indicate a wider problem.
Слайд 15: biodiversity
( b aɪ oʊdaɪv ɜː ʳsɪti Biodiversity is the existence of a wide variety of plant and animal species living in their natural environment.
Слайд 16: Why count butterflies?
We count butterflies because not only are they beautiful creatures to be around but they are also extremely important. They are vital parts of the ecosystem as both pollinators and components of the food chain. However, they are under threat. Numbers of butterflies and moths in the UK have decreased significantly since the 1970s. This is a warning that cannot be ignored. Butterfly declines are also an early warning for other wildlife losses. Butterflies are key biodiversity indicators for scientists as they react very quickly to changes in their environment. Therefore, if their numbers are falling, then nature is in trouble. So tracking numbers of butterflies is crucial in the fight to conserve our natural world. That’s why taking part in this massive citizen science enterprise is of great importance not just for our butterflies but for the wider environment and biodiversity in general.
Слайд 18: Ducklings in ponds
In spring, ducklings in ponds, lakes and rivers are a common and heart-warming sight. Mallards are the most abundant species in the UK and on average lay 8-13 in a clutch. Once laid, the eggs require 28 days of incubation before hatching through a method known as ‘ pipping and zipping’ whereby the duckling breaks into an air bubble within the egg and begins to ‘pip’, before pecking in a circle to ‘unzip’ the egg shell. A normal breeding season produces ducklings from March through to July, though unseasonably warm weather means some late broods can emerge as late as November. A brood - a group of baby birds
Последний слайд презентации: 6 signs that spring has arrived; from the world of wildlife: Badgers
With striking black and white markings, badgers are one of the UK’s most iconic wild mammals. While they do not hibernate, their activity is significantly reduced throughout the colder winter months, but in spring they begin to appear as warm weather brings their most favourite food, the earthworm, back to the soil surface. Groups of badgers are called a clan and they live in a sett, a series of intertwining tunnels with purpose-built chambers for sleeping or nursing. Spring is the perfect time to spot these beautiful creatures when their activity is on the rise and overgrowth hasn’t blocked the view of their sett entrance entirely. Cubs are typically born in February in groups of two or three and will gradually explore the sett until mid-April when they emerge, their mother ever watchful. ( b æ dʒəʳ