Слайд 2: Semantics
Semantics is concerned with meaning. One reoccurring theme in studying about language. M orphology (Internal structure of English words ) Syntax (Structure of phrases and sentences) Pragmatics (Intended meaning)
Слайд 3: Semantics
Denotation meaning & Connotation meaning (Literal meaning) ( Underlying meaning ) Denotation is the literal meaning of a word that can be found in a dictionary. Connotation is the feeling or idea that goes along with a word. For example, pig simply denotes a specific animal, but the connotation of the term is often negative and it can be used in a figurative way, for example, to describe a person. Cheap (negative connotation) - Inexpensive
Слайд 4: Denotation and Connotation
http:// examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-connotative-words.html Below are groups of similar words used to describe people. What are the connotations of each word? 1. Childlike, Youthful, Childish, Young 2. Disabled, Crippled, Handicapped 3. Relaxed, Laid-back, Easygoing 4. Slim, Skinny, Slender, Thin 5. Cheap, Economical 6. Adolescent, Immature, Juvenile, Innocent 7. Inquisitive, Interested, Curious, Prying 8. Confident, Proud, Egotistical 9. Talkative, Conversational, Chatty, Jabbering Read more at http:// examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-connotative-words.html#GLkDHSPFIvGXwdgs.99
Слайд 5: Componential Analysis
S emanticists engaged in componential analysis (sometimes referred to as lexical decomposition) attempt to define words in terms of a set of abstract semantic primitives that break down a word into its essential components.
Слайд 6: Componential Analysis of Meaning
For instance, Leech (1981: 90) proposes the features below to define the words man, woman, boy, and girl : Man : _human, _adult, _male Woman : _human, _adult, _female Boy : _human, _young, _male Girl : _human, _young, _female
Слайд 7: Semantic Features
Motion : bring, fall, walk, run Contact : hit, kick, kiss Creation : build, imagine, make Sense: hear, see, feel
Слайд 8: Semantic relations
More traditionally, semanticists have compared words in terms of a group of more general semantic relations that describe various degrees of similarities and differences that words exhibit. In her survey of the literature on semantic relations, Sparck Jones (1986: 42–7) identifies 12 different relations that have been proposed, including the three below : Synonymy: words having the same meaning ( e.g. help / assist, common / ubiquitous, hard / difficult ) Antonym: words having opposite meanings ( e.g. light / dark, heavy / light, open / closed ) Hyponymy: words whose meanings are included in the meaning of a more general word ( e.g. daisy, rose, tulip → flowers ; desk, table, sofa → furniture ; sparrow, robin, crow → birds )
Слайд 9: Synonyms
The true test of synonymy is substitutability: the ability of two words to be substituted for one another without a change in meaning. For instance, the example below contains the verb assist. The research assistant was available to assist patients completing the survey. If help is a synonym of assist, then it should be able to be substituted for assist in the above example without a change in meaning:
Слайд 10: Synonyms
However, absolute synonymy is a controversial notion. 1. He finds it difficult [hard] to describe his feelings. ( BNC A06 838) 2. I do not deal with the equally hard [difficult] problem of the patient who is admitted unconscious to hospital after a suicide attempt ( BNC ASK 1523) 3. Charles also found himself in a difficult [?hard] position. ( BNC AOF 140)
Слайд 11: Synonyms
Other differences are more subtle, as in the case of buy and purchase. There are certainly cases where the two words can be interchanged. However, forms of the two verbs occur in very different contexts. The family bought [purchased] a house in Park Street, London, and another converted Tudor farmhouse near Esher. ( ICE-GB W2F-017 082) 2. Sangster recently purchased [bought] a 10-acre property in the South of France, apparently to concentrate on his golf. ( BNC A4B 342 )
Слайд 12: Synonyms
3. Can I buy [?purchase] you a cognac? ( BNC CEC 829) 4. The serving machines are available in a selection of sizes and can be leased or purchased [?bought]. ( BNC A0C 1147 ) Another clear example : “ House” and “ Home”
Слайд 13: Antonyms
While synonyms have similar meanings, antonyms have opposite meanings. For Lyons (1977: 279) and Murphy (2003: 170), antonymy is a type of contrast. Old ---- New Expensive ---- Rural ---- Dark ---
Слайд 15: Antonyms
In their analysis of word pairs marked as antonyms in the Collins Cobuild Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary (4th edn.), Paradis and Willners (2006) found that while the majority of antonyms were adjectives (59%), other form classes were represented as well: nouns (19%), verbs (13%), and other (9%).
Слайд 16: Antonyms
Adjectives: active / passive, bad / good, illegal / legal, long / short, feminine / masculine, rural / urban, gay / straight Nouns: advantage / disadvantage, boom / recession, guilt / innocence, optimism / pessimism Verbs: agree / disagree, confirm / deny, disprove / prove, fail / succeed, lose / win Adverbs: directly / indirectly, explicitly / implicitly, officially / unofficially, quickly / slowly
Слайд 17: Hyponyms
Hyponymy is a relation in which the meaning of a word is included in the meaning of a more general word. poodle is a hyponym of dog because the meaning of poodle is included within the more general meaning of dog. In the relation of hyponymy, the more specific word is known as a hyponym and the more general word a hypernym (Meyer, 2009 ). Navy blue ----- Color Fry ----- Cook Justin ----- singer
Слайд 18: Componential Analysis of Meaning
John likes basketball. The table likes basketball. The dog ran across the field. The refrigerator ran across the field. Dana's mother has no children. The empty bucket is full. How this knowledge benefits you?
Слайд 19: How this knowledge benefits you?
Writing as an art Avoid repetition 1. Justin got drunk and had a fight with other passengers in the cruise. (He) ______ ended up paying fine of 500 Baht. 2. A 10 year-old boy, Sam, was kidnaped by a group of masked men. (He) ______ returned home safely this morning.
Слайд 20: Conceptual Metaphor
Conceptual metaphor is a model that aims to explain how human cognition deals with certain aspects of meaning. A conceptual metaphor is an expression from ordinary language in which the meaning associated with A is drawn from B.
Слайд 21: Conceptual Metaphor
Angry (Anger) You make my blood boil. Let her stew. She got all steamed up. He's just blowing off steam. Hot (Heat)
Слайд 22: Conceptual Metaphor
Time She spends her time unwisely. The diversion should buy him some time. Something valuable
Слайд 23: Summary
1. Componential Analysis 2. Semantic Relations 3. Conceptual Metaphor