Слайд 2: Plan
Stages of development of Russian philosophy, its school and current. Westerners and Slavophiles. Philosophical views of Russian writers F. M. Dostoevsky and L. N. Tolstoy. "Philosophy of unity" by V. S. Solovyov.
Слайд 3: Stages of development of Russian philosophy
1 Ancient and medieval Russian philosophy The XI-XVII centuries. 2 Russian enlightenment XVIII – first quarter of the XIX century. 3 Russian spiritual Renaissance Second quarter of the XIX century – 1917 4 Soviet period of Russian philosophy 1917 – 1991 г. 5 Post-Soviet period of Russian philosophy 1991 г.
Слайд 4: The most important philosophical trends of modern Russia
Dialectical materialism Religious philosophy Orthodoxy Islam Eastern philosophy Buddhism Neo-Hinduism Yoga Philosophy of esoteric orientation Psychoanalysis
Слайд 5: Features of Russian philosophy
Close attention to social issues Popular worship – a sense of duty to the people Ethical focus Dispute between Westerners and Slavophiles Philosophical and artistic complex Close attention to religious issues
Слайд 6: Main directions of Russian philosophy
Main directions of Russian philosophy Westernism Slavophilism
Westernism Russia has no special path of development All the national identity of Russia is the result of lagging behind world history The purpose of the Westerners Russia's acceptance of European values and its inclusion in the civilized world
Peter Yakovlevich Chaadaev(1794-1856) At the origins of Westernism are the ideas of p. ya. Chaadaev. He was born in the family of a rich landowner. Without graduating from Moscow University, in the Patriotic war of 1812, he volunteered for the army. He went with the Russian army to Paris, receiving many awards. Chaadaev was expected to have a brilliant career in the military, but he retired. At the turn of the 1820s and 1830s, he wrote "Philosophical letters". Nicholas I declared the author insane and sent him under house arrest under the supervision of doctors and the police. Later, Chaadaev wrote The "apology of a madman", which was illegally included in the lists. Chaadaev died alone in a strange house from pneumonia.
The first "Philosophical letter" of eight was published in 1836. Five more were published in 1935, and the remaining two were published only in the late 1980s. "We are one of those Nations that are not part of humanity, but exist only to give the world an important lesson…From the first moment of our social existence we have done nothing for the common good of men; no useful thought has been born on the barren soil of our country; no great truth has come out of our midst; we have not taken the trouble to invent anything ourselves, and from what others have invented we have adopted only deceptive appearances and useless luxuries'. Ya. Chaadaev
Слайд 10: Philosophical ideas of P. Ya. Chaadaev
Russia remained outside the history of world civilization, as it took religion and culture from Byzantium In the West Chaadaev saw the ideas of enlightenment
Слайд 11: 1840s-Westernism becomes an influential philosophical movement
Leading the Westerners A. I. Herzen1812-1870 N. P. Ogarev1813-1877 V. G. Belinsky1811-1848
Слайд 12: Westernism
Westerners believed Russia should Learn from Europe Go through the stages of development of Western countries Learn the ideas of the enlightenment To go to the only path of progress is the path of science and reason
Слайд 13: Slavophilism
Russia should develop along a special path that is not similar to Western Europe Goal Development of a national Russian idea based on the religious traditions of Orthodoxy
Слайд 14: Alexey Stepanovich Khomyakov (1804-1860)
At the origins of Slavophilism is A. S. Khomyakov. He was born into a rich noble family in Moscow. After graduating from the physics and mathematics Department of Moscow University, he entered the military service in the cavalry. He participated in the war with Turkey and was awarded three times for bravery. In retirement, he was engaged in philosophy and agriculture. To emphasize his beliefs, he wore a beard and dressed in an old Russian dress. Khomyakov had a phenomenal memory, knew many languages, was an expert in many Humanities and technical Sciences, a poet, a doctor and an inventor (among his inventions – a silent steam engine and a long-range rifle). He died during a cholera epidemic.
Слайд 15: Slavophiles
Ivan Vasilievich Kireevsky1806-1856 Konstantin Sergeevich Aksakov1817-1860
Слайд 16: Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (1821-1881)
Born in Moscow in a noble family. After graduating from the Main engineering school in St. Petersburg, he began to engage in literary work, which was favorably received by critics. At this time, he is also interested in revolutionary ideas. In 1849, for "anti-government activities", he was arrested and sentenced to death. At the moment of waiting for the execution, a courier arrived with a decree to replace the execution with hard labor. Dostoevsky spends nine years in prison and exile. In 1859, he returned to St. Petersburg, where he worked as a writer.
Слайд 17: F. M. Dostoevsky's philosophical views
In the 1860s. Dostoevsky develops a program of soil science The connection of public life in Russia with the primordial national principles destroyed by Peter's reforms must be restored Spirituality Collectivism Sobornost
Слайд 18: F. M. Dostoevsky about the man
To resolve urgent issues, you need to address the soul of each individual person Essence of man Human freedom Freedom of immorality The self-destruction of man
Слайд 19: F. M. Dostoevsky about the man
A person should independently go to freedom, freeing himself from passions, temptations and conventional authorities This is a difficult path that involves suffering Only suffering leads to redemption and gives complete freedom
Слайд 20: Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910)
Serious philosophical ideas are contained in the works of Leo Tolstoy. In War and peace, he raises the question of the driving forces of history and criticizes the theory of "great personalities" as creators of history. For Tolstoy, the creators are not heroes and leaders, but the masses of the people, driven by historical necessity.
Слайд 21: Ethics Of L. N. Tolstoy
The idea of nonviolence Do not create violence and do not prepare for it Do not take part in the violence of others (do not serve in the army, do not participate in the courts, etc.) Don't approve of any violence
For his views on religion in 1901, Leo Tolstoy was excommunicated from the Church (anathema).
Слайд 23: VL.S. Solovyov
V. S. Solovyov was a significant figure in Russian philosophy.His works became the main source of formation of religious philosophy of the XX century.These include:"Russia and the universal Church"," Justification of good"," The meaning of love", etc.
Слайд 24: Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov (1853-1900)
He was born in the family of the famous historian S. M. Solovyov. He studied at the historical-philological and physical-mathematical faculties of Moscow University. His religious philosophy was prompted by a vision of a Beautiful Lady, which was repeated three times: as a child, during classes in London, in Egypt. For Solovyov, this image became the basis of the philosophy of Eternal femininity, divine wisdom (Sophia). At the end of his life, Solovyov was unsettled and had serious disagreements with the Orthodox Church. Troubles undermined his health, and at the age of 47, he died.
Слайд 25: The Central idea of Solovyov's philosophy
Unity Perfect synthesis of knowledge values, ways of knowing the world
The main points of the "philosophy of unity" VL.S. Solovyov Ontology Epistemology Axiology Ethics Religion Visible world Feelings Beauty Shame Orthodoxy World soul (Sofia) Mind Truth M ercy Catholicism Divine world Faith G oodness V eneration Protestantism
Слайд 27: Ontology Of VL.S. Solovyov
There is an absolute world as the embodiment of the divine This world is opposed by the visible, created world, which aspires to the divine The intermediary between the worlds is the world soul World soul-Sophia, "eternal femininity", similar to the image of the MOTHER of God
Слайд 28: Epistemology
Wholeness is only comprehended by the whole knowledge, in which they are United Knowledge Empirical (scientific) Rational (philosophical) Mystical Faith Intuition Creation
Слайд 30: Ethics
Man separates himself from other beings Through shame Mercy indicates the solidarity of all living things Reverence is submission to the divine These three components are combined in love