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РОСЖЕЛДОР Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Ростовский государственный университет путей сообщения» (ФГБОУ ВО РГУПС) Тамбовский техникум железнодорожного транспорта (ТаТЖТ-филиал РГУПС) Экологическая безопасность на жд трансорте Выполнили работу: Тен Валерия Сафронов Виталий Тарасов Роман
The main areas of environmental activity are: the introduction of innovative technologies that protect air and water resources, neutralize industrial waste, reduce emissions of gases and noise, man-made effects on the human body, and improve environmental management systems and ensure environmental monitoring. We offer a review of articles from scientific-theoretical and technical-economic journals devoted to the solution of environmental issues in railway transport. Articles printed in magazines published 2008-2013. Journals are stored in the reading room of the scientific and technical library of the Rostov State University of Communications.
Ensuring a high level of environmental safety for Russian Railways is one of the highest and invariable priorities. The company has an environmental management system, one of the links of which is the Scientific and Production Center for Environmental Protection. The high level of equipment allows you to carry out all work with high quality and in a short time. Most of the work is done at the request of railway enterprises at road facilities. Analytical information is being prepared on the quality and quantity of emissions, pollutant discharges, waste disposal; Calculations are prepared penalties for a negative impact on the environment. Bukhtina L.G. Environmental protection is a priority of the industry // Railway transport..
Railway transport is the largest consumer of liquid hydrocarbon fuel and is a source of harmful emissions. A powerful incentive for the production and use of low-toxic engines should be an increase in the payment for environmental management. To characterize the engine as a source of environmental pollution is an indicator - the emission of harmful substances per unit of time. Compliance with the standards for the content of harmful substances in the exhaust gases of engines is becoming tougher, so it is recommended to use the following promising measures to reduce emissions of harmful substances: electronic fuel injection, exhaust gas recirculation with their external cooling and others. Bulaev V.G. Ecological safety of diesel locomotives and ways to increase it // Railway transport.
Grigorovich D.N. Alternative fuels for railway transport // Energy: economy, technology, ecology. Railway vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICE) have great power. Currently, work is underway to create a cheap technology for producing hydrogen fuel, and new power plants are being designed that convert the chemical energy of hydrogen into electrochemical. Such installations include fuel cell electrochemical generators. Natural gas is proven, proven, efficient, economical and clean fuel. Natural gas can be in two states: liquefied (LNG) and compressed or compressed (CNG). Each of the state of aggregation of natural gas has its drawbacks, and therefore its choice should be related to the operating conditions of diesel locomotives: shunting and trunk. As an alternative to diesel fuel, an environmentally friendly type of fuel is offered - biofuel that can be used in internal combustion engines, both independently, after preliminary adjustment of the engine, and mixed with conventional fuel, without making changes to the design of the diesel engine. As a result of tests, measuring the toxicity of exhaust gases showed that the addition of biofuels reduces the content of carbon oxides in diesel exhaust gases from 2% to 25%.
An important element of the environmental impact of rail transport is environmentally friendly infrastructure. The article provides an analysis of the environmental life cycle of sleepers made of various materials. The technology of protection of wooden sleepers with creosote allows to increase the service life of sleepers by 8-10 times. Reinforced concrete sleepers have advantages in terms of energy consumption and respect for the environment during the stages of production, installation and operation. Concrete sleepers can be considered as an environmentally friendly element of the path, because they are not processed by any chemicals in the production process and they deplete the natural resources to a minimum. The experience of using steel sleepers proves the environmental benefits of replacing wooden sleepers. Steel sleepers are more environmentally friendly, as they can be 100% recycled, made from recycled materials, and therefore relatively cheap, have a longer service life. Steel sleepers are an environmentally and economically attractive choice for railways. Sleepers from the point of view of ecology // Railways of the world. -2011. - № 6. - p. 63-65.
The article is devoted to the problems of environmental protection from the effects of anthropogenic factors, the tasks of preserving and strengthening human health are set. The number and types of new equipment increases, the operation of which is accompanied by the emission of electromagnetic energy into the environment. The use of electromagnetic fields (EMF) in various fields of human activity is immense, therefore it is necessary to study their influence on the human body. The main sources of electromagnetic radiation are wearable radio stations, which are widely used in all types of transmission of operational information on railway transport. Ecological and hygienic regulation of EMF levels in the environment requires deep research. This article provides an assessment of the levels of EMF generated by individual wearable radio stations. The technical characteristics of the radio stations are given, the intensity of the electromagnetic field in different directions is indicated.
The main criteria for the quality of transportation is the speed of trains and the comfort of the journey of passengers. You can increase comfort by reducing the impact on the passenger of dynamic loads, noise, vibration, which are the result of the interaction of rolling stock and railway track. The author of the article cites the parameters of the vibration frequency, reveals the influence of the intensity of vibrations on the human body, it is emphasized that the cause of discomfort is the presence of vertical and horizontal irregularities on the rolling surface of the rail head. The data on the limiting levels of infrasound in passenger cars are placed. Davydov A.K. About vibrations in transport // Path and track facilities. - 2012. - № 4. - p. 28.
A version of the report is given by V.V. Cherkasov at the conference. The speaker raises issues of improving corporate standards in the field of labor protection and environmental management. One of the important areas of work on labor protection is the certification of workplaces, which allows you to identify risks of harm to the health of workers. Devices of control of hazardous voltages are developed and introduced during track operations in electrified sections of alternating and direct current. The use of LED technology at railway facilities provides an opportunity to study the photobiological effect of LED radiation on the human body. Carrying out measures to ensure technospheric and environmental safety in transport today is impossible without the appropriate scientific and technical tools. Russian Railways develops innovative satellite technologies based on the integrated use of the global GLONASS / GPS satellite navigation systems and Earth remote sensing satellite systems. Technosphere and environmental safety in transport // Railway transport. .
The article describes the experience of creating the database "Environment and Transport" in Germany. On the basis of this data, the Federal Environmental Protection Service of Germany provides information that fully contain specific values of harmful emissions for different types of transport, including rail. The most important environmental indicators are presented for each type of transport, separately for passenger and freight traffic. All energy costs are accounted for by each mode of transport. The databank really reflects all the damages caused to the environment by German vehicles. Railway transport and environmental problems // Railways of the world. - 2012. - № 7. - P.15-18.