Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent was born at Kensington Palace on the 24 May 1819.
She was the daughter of prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent ( the fourth son of George III) (1767—1820) and princess Victoria Luise of Saxe-Coburg- Saalfield, the dowager princess zu Leiningen (1786—1861).
Princess Victoria had two half-siblings : Prince Carl Friedrich Emich zu Leiningen (1804 –1856 ) and Princess Feodora Charlotte of Hohenlohe- Langenburg (1807–1872)
Prince Edward had married Victoria when an heir to the throne was needed after the death in childbirth of George IV's only child, Princess Charlotte of Wales (who had been married to Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg- Saalfeld ).
Queen Victoria and her cousin Victoria, the Duchess of Nemours (1852)
At the time of Victoria's accession, the government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne. The Prime Minister at once became a powerful influence on the politically inexperienced Queen, who relied on him for advice
During Queen Victoria’s reign, Queen supported numerous scientific, mechanical and medical research which took the British Empire forward and increased it world influence. In addition to this, there were a lot of inventions and growth of major cities like Manchester, Leeds, and Birmingham. Great Britain experienced many new changes, mainly political and industrial. Factories expanded which was facilitated with the new railway lines built around the country.
Photograph showing Queen Victoria and Prince Albert (seated on The Queen's left) attending the Manchester Exhibition ( 1857)
Queen Victoria presenting a Bible in the Audience Chamber at Windsor (1863)
Queen Victoria was entitled with the label of “ Empress of India ” in 1877 when India was formally unified with the British Empire. She accepted the title on the advice of her seventh prime minister Benjamin Disraeli, to tie the monarchy and Empire close together.
Queen Victoria was determined to choose her husband. She had met her cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha as a girl. Later when he visited England with his brother Ernest, Victoria was very impressed with him. They married on 10 February 1840.
Prince Albert died on 14 December 1861 from typhoid fever in the presence of the Queen and five of their nine children. Victoria entered a state of mourning and wore black for the remainder of her life. She avoided public appearances and rarely set foot in London.
Queen Victoria received the nickname, "Grandmother of Europe“, because her children married into the other Royal families of Europe. Among her grandchildren were Queen of Spain Victoria, Grand Duke Ernest Louis of Hesse, Crown Princess Margaret of Sweden, King of the United Kingdom George V, Queen of Romania Marie, German Emperor Wilhelm II, Empress of Russia Alexandra.