Презентация на тему: Psychology’s Big Issues & Approaches

Psychology’s Big Issues & Approaches
Philosophical Developments
Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis
Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis
Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis
Bio-Psycho-Social Model Analysis
Psychological Approaches
Psychological Perspectives
Cognitive Perspective
Psychology’s Big Issues & Approaches
Biological Perspective
Psychology’s Big Issues & Approaches
Social-Cultural Perspective
Psychology’s Big Issues & Approaches
Behavioral Perspective
Psychology’s Big Issues & Approaches
Humanistic Perspective
Positive Psychology
Psychology’s Big Issues & Approaches
Psychodynamic Perspective
Psychology’s Big Issues & Approaches
Evolutionary Psychology
Perspectives Timeline
Psychology’s Subfields
Psychologist vs. Psychiatrist
Basic vs. Applied Research
Definition Slides
Biological Psychology
Cognitive Psychology
Evolutionary Psychology
Psychodynamic Psychology
Social-Cultural Psychology
Developmental Psychology
Educational Psychology
Personality Psychology
Social Psychology
Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychologists
Human Factors Psychologists
Counseling Psychology
Clinical Psychology
Community Psychology
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Первый слайд презентации: Psychology’s Big Issues & Approaches

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Слайд 2: Philosophical Developments

THE Question: Nature vs. Nurture Inherited vs. Environment Are our physical and mental abilities determined by our genes or our experiences? What has the biggest effect on behavior? What are the interactions between genetics and environment? NURTURE WORKS ON WHAT NATURE ENDOWS BIG

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Слайд 3: Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis

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Слайд 4: Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis

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Слайд 5: Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis

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Слайд 6: Bio-Psycho-Social Model Analysis

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Слайд 7: Psychological Approaches

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Слайд 8: Psychological Perspectives

Each view behavior from a particular perspective Method of classifying a collection of ideas Also called “schools of thought” Also called “psychological approaches”

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Слайд 9: Cognitive Perspective

Focus: On how people think and process information Behavior is explained by how a person interprets the situation How is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered, and used to guide behavior? Influences include Piaget – studied intellectual development Chomsky – studied language Cybernetics – science of information processing

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Слайд 11: Biological Perspective

Focus: How our biological structures and substances underlie a given behavior, thought, or emotion Behavior is explained by brain chemistry, genetics, glands, etc. Focus may be at various levels individual neurons areas of the brain specific functions like eating, emotion, or learning Interest in behavior distinguishes biological psychology from many other biological sciences

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Слайд 13: Social-Cultural Perspective

Focus: How thinking and behavior change depending on the setting, situation or culture Behavior is explained by the influence of other people present

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Слайд 15: Behavioral Perspective

Focus: How we learn through rewards, punishments, and observation View of behavior based on experience or learning Classical conditioning - Pavlov Operant conditioning – Skinner Founded by James Watson

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Слайд 17: Humanistic Perspective

Focus: How healthy people strive to reach their full potential Behavior is explained as being motivated by satisfying needs (safety, hunger, thirst, etc.), with the goal of reaching one’s full potential once basic needs are met. Developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers behavior reflects innate ‘actualization’ focus on conscious forces and self perception more positive view of basic forces than Freud’s

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Слайд 18: Positive Psychology

Modern “Humanistic Psychology” Focus: To study and promote optimal human functioning Help people discover their human potential and fullfillment Martin E.P. Seligman is a major advocate Should promote building positive qualities of people rather than focus on what’s wrong with people

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Слайд 20: Psychodynamic Perspective

Focus: How behavior is affected by unconscious drives and conflicts Behavior is explained through unconscious motivation and unresolved inner conflicts from one’s childhood. Modern version of psychoanalytic perspective (Sigmund Freud)

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Слайд 22: Evolution

Darwin’s Theory of Evolution with the process of Natural Selection influenced Psychology. The most adaptive traits will survive due to natural selection Focused on how one’s environment might cause one to adapt physically, behaviorally & psychologically to insure the success of future generations.

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Слайд 23: Evolutionary Psychology

Influenced by Darwin and the emphasis on innate, adaptive behavior patterns Combines aspects of biological, psychological, and social perspectives Behavior is explained by how the behavior may have helped our ancestors survive long enough to reproduce successfully.

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Слайд 24: Perspectives Timeline

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Слайд 25: Psychology’s Subfields

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Слайд 26: Psychologist vs. Psychiatrist

Counseling Psychologist – help people with crises & life problems (academic, job related, family) Clinical Psychologist – treats disorders Psychiatrist – medical doctor that can prescribe drugs to treat physical causes of disorders

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Слайд 27: Basic vs. Applied Research

Applied Research – Providing solutions to problems Industrial/organizational psychologists Human factors psychologists Counseling psychologists Clinical psychologists Psychiatrists Positive psychology Community psychologists Basic Research – Discovering concepts and processes Biological psychologists Developmental psychologists Cognitive psychologists Educational psychologists Personality psychologists Social psychologists

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Слайд 28: Definition Slides

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Слайд 29: Biological Psychology

= the scientific study of the links between biological (genetic, neural, hormonal) and psychological processes. Some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists.

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Слайд 30: Cognitive Psychology

= the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

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Слайд 31: Evolutionary Psychology

= the study of the evolution of behavior and mind, using principles of natural selection.

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Слайд 32: Psychodynamic Psychology

= a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.

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Слайд 33: Social-Cultural Psychology

= the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.

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Слайд 34: Psychometrics

= the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits.

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Слайд 35: Developmental Psychology

= a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.

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Слайд 36: Educational Psychology

= the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning.

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Слайд 37: Personality Psychology

= the study of an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

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Слайд 38: Social Psychology

= the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.

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Слайд 39: Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychologists

= the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.

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Слайд 40: Human Factors Psychologists

= an I/O subfield that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use.

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Слайд 41: Counseling Psychology

= a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, and marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.

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Слайд 42: Clinical Psychology

= a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treat people with psychological disorders.

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Последний слайд презентации: Psychology’s Big Issues & Approaches: Community Psychology

= a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups.

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