Слайд 2: Philosophical Developments
THE Question: Nature vs. Nurture Inherited vs. Environment Are our physical and mental abilities determined by our genes or our experiences? What has the biggest effect on behavior? What are the interactions between genetics and environment? NURTURE WORKS ON WHAT NATURE ENDOWS BIG
Слайд 8: Psychological Perspectives
Each view behavior from a particular perspective Method of classifying a collection of ideas Also called “schools of thought” Also called “psychological approaches”
Слайд 9: Cognitive Perspective
Focus: On how people think and process information Behavior is explained by how a person interprets the situation How is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered, and used to guide behavior? Influences include Piaget – studied intellectual development Chomsky – studied language Cybernetics – science of information processing
Слайд 11: Biological Perspective
Focus: How our biological structures and substances underlie a given behavior, thought, or emotion Behavior is explained by brain chemistry, genetics, glands, etc. Focus may be at various levels individual neurons areas of the brain specific functions like eating, emotion, or learning Interest in behavior distinguishes biological psychology from many other biological sciences
Слайд 13: Social-Cultural Perspective
Focus: How thinking and behavior change depending on the setting, situation or culture Behavior is explained by the influence of other people present
Слайд 15: Behavioral Perspective
Focus: How we learn through rewards, punishments, and observation View of behavior based on experience or learning Classical conditioning - Pavlov Operant conditioning – Skinner Founded by James Watson
Слайд 17: Humanistic Perspective
Focus: How healthy people strive to reach their full potential Behavior is explained as being motivated by satisfying needs (safety, hunger, thirst, etc.), with the goal of reaching one’s full potential once basic needs are met. Developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers behavior reflects innate ‘actualization’ focus on conscious forces and self perception more positive view of basic forces than Freud’s
Слайд 18: Positive Psychology
Modern “Humanistic Psychology” Focus: To study and promote optimal human functioning Help people discover their human potential and fullfillment Martin E.P. Seligman is a major advocate Should promote building positive qualities of people rather than focus on what’s wrong with people
Слайд 20: Psychodynamic Perspective
Focus: How behavior is affected by unconscious drives and conflicts Behavior is explained through unconscious motivation and unresolved inner conflicts from one’s childhood. Modern version of psychoanalytic perspective (Sigmund Freud)
Слайд 22: Evolution
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution with the process of Natural Selection influenced Psychology. The most adaptive traits will survive due to natural selection Focused on how one’s environment might cause one to adapt physically, behaviorally & psychologically to insure the success of future generations.
Слайд 23: Evolutionary Psychology
Influenced by Darwin and the emphasis on innate, adaptive behavior patterns Combines aspects of biological, psychological, and social perspectives Behavior is explained by how the behavior may have helped our ancestors survive long enough to reproduce successfully.
Слайд 26: Psychologist vs. Psychiatrist
Counseling Psychologist – help people with crises & life problems (academic, job related, family) Clinical Psychologist – treats disorders Psychiatrist – medical doctor that can prescribe drugs to treat physical causes of disorders
Слайд 27: Basic vs. Applied Research
Applied Research – Providing solutions to problems Industrial/organizational psychologists Human factors psychologists Counseling psychologists Clinical psychologists Psychiatrists Positive psychology Community psychologists Basic Research – Discovering concepts and processes Biological psychologists Developmental psychologists Cognitive psychologists Educational psychologists Personality psychologists Social psychologists
Слайд 29: Biological Psychology
= the scientific study of the links between biological (genetic, neural, hormonal) and psychological processes. Some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists.
Слайд 30: Cognitive Psychology
= the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Слайд 31: Evolutionary Psychology
= the study of the evolution of behavior and mind, using principles of natural selection.
Слайд 32: Psychodynamic Psychology
= a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.
Слайд 33: Social-Cultural Psychology
= the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.
Слайд 34: Psychometrics
= the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits.
Слайд 35: Developmental Psychology
= a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
Слайд 36: Educational Psychology
= the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning.
Слайд 37: Personality Psychology
= the study of an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Слайд 38: Social Psychology
= the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
Слайд 39: Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychologists
= the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
Слайд 40: Human Factors Psychologists
= an I/O subfield that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use.
Слайд 41: Counseling Psychology
= a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, and marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.
Слайд 42: Clinical Psychology
= a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treat people with psychological disorders.