Первый слайд презентации: PROSODY vs. INTONATION
Yersh Inna, Kvartalyova Ann IV – B course
Слайд 2: The terms prosody and intonation relate to each other. Though intonation is sometimes restricted to the pitch level only
Prosody conveys information that words don’t consist and is concerned with three matters: the ways in which an utterance is broken into tone units, e.g. the phrase ‘ We don’t want those ’ may be pronounced in a single breath or in 4 separate breaths (if someone is irritated) ‘We | don’t | want | those ||’. The verbal content is the same. The number of tone units differ. the position of the stress that makes one syllable more prominent than the other. Note how the meaning changes when the stress is moved: a) We don’t want those. c) We don’t want those. b) We don’t want those. d) We don’t want those. The utterances differ in the focus of the meaning.
3) melody – the way in which the pitch of the voice changes in the utterance. Compare the two sentences: a) You don’t know. The voices falls – the speaker is telling. b) You don’t know? The voice rises – the speaker is asking.
Слайд 5: INTONATION
INTONATION is a complex unity of speech melody, sentence stress, and tempo of speech (the rate of speech plus pauses). Intonation is a language universal. There are no languages spoken monotonously. SPEECH MELODY is the variations of voice pitch produced in connected speech. It makes the PITCH COMPONENT of intonation which is the core of intonation system. The FORCE COMPONENT of intonation is made by the sentence stress. It is the greater prominence of one or more words among other words in the sentence. There is the TEMPORAL COMPONENT of intonation which comprises 1) pauses; 2) duration (tempo in speech); 3) rhythm.
Слайд 6: INTONATION: MAIN FUNCTIONS
The ATTITUDINAL FUNCTION: intonation is used to convey our feelings and attitudes, e.g. the same sentence can be pronounced in different ways, which might be labelled "angry", "happy", "grateful", "bored", and so on.
Besides, the form of intonation is not the same in different languages, e.g. the intonation of Swedish, Italian or Hindi is different from that of English. Not surprisingly, foreign learners of English need to learn English intonation to express gratitude or affection or other feelings correctly. To understand this pronounce a sentence 'I want to buy a new car' in a number of different ways: "pleading", "angry", "sad", "happy", "proud". To represent that you will use variations in loudness, speed, different voice qualities to express different attitudes.
The ACCENTUAL FUNCTION: ("accent" is used by some linguists to refer to "stress"). Normally the word stress is independent of intonation. However, for contrastive purposes any word may become the tonic syllable, e.g.: a) I ' want to ' know ' where he's trave lling to ; typical location b) I ' don't ' want to ' know 'where he' s trave lling from. contrastive Placement of tonic stress is, therefore, important and is closely linked to intonation.
The GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION: in sentences which when written are ambiguous. Only intonation can remove this ambiguity. The sentence "Those who sold quickly made a profit" can be said in at least two different ways: a) | 'Those who 'sold quick ly |, made a pro fit || b) | 'Those who ' sold |‚ quick ly made a profit || The difference is equivalent to two different meanings: a) A profit was made by those who sold quickly; b) A profit was quickly made by those who sold. In sentences with a more complex structure, tone-unit boundaries are often found at phrase and clause boundaries: | In France | where ' farms ' tend to be smal ler | the 'subsidies are 'more im port ant || It would sound odd to have a tone-unit boundary between an article and the following noun, or between auxiliary and main verbs if they are adjacent (though some people who do a lot of arguing, notably politicians and philosophers, develop the skill of pausing for breath in such places because they are less likely to be interrupted than if they pause at the end of a sentence).
A a rising tone is always used for general questions in English, e.g.: | 'Did you 'park the car || A falling tone is used with special questions in English, e.g.: | 'Where did you 'park the car || However, the fall is not compulsory, and a rise is quite often heard in such a question. The intonation of question-tags leads to difference in meaning (the difference between falling and rising tone), e.g.: a) | They 'are 'coming on Tues day | aren't they || b) | They 'are 'coming on Tues day | aren't they || in (a), the speaker is comparatively certain that the information is correct, and simply expects the listener to provide confirmation, in (b), the rising tone indicates a lesser degree of certainty, so that the question-tag functions more like a request for information The difference illustrated here could be also considered as attitudinal. There is overlap between these two types of function.
The DISCOURCE FUNCTION : intonation focuses the listener's attention on aspects of the message that are most important. The study of discourse analyzes larger contexts in which sentences occur. Consider the following four sentences: A: Have you got any free time this morning? B: I might have later on if that meeting's off. A: They were talking about putting it later. B: You can't be sure.
Each sentence could be studied in isolation; however, it is obvious that the sentences form the part of some larger act of conversational interaction between two speakers: the sentences contain several references to shared knowledge ( e.g. 'that meeting' implies that both speakers know which meeting is being spoken about); in some cases the meaning of a sentence can only be correctly interpreted with the knowledge of what has preceded it in the conversation ( e.g. 'You can't be sure').
Speakers use various prosodic components to indicate that they have finished speaking, that another person is expected to speak, that a particular type of response is required, and so on.