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PROBLEMS OF URBANISATION IN INDIA COURSE STUDENT: POOJARY SINCHAN PUTTU SCIENTIFIC LEADER: SVETLANA SMIRNOVA
WHAT IS URBANISATION Urbanization (or urbanisation ) refers to the population shift from rural to urban areas, the decrease in the proportion of people living in rural areas, and the ways in which societies adapt to this change. ] It is predominantly the process by which towns and cities are formed and become larger as more people begin living and working in central areas.
Employment opportunity. Lack of infrastructural facilities. Socio economic development. Exposure etc. MAIN CAUSES OF URBANISATION
URBANIISATION in India began to accelerate after independence, due to the country's adoption of a mixed economy, which gave rise to the development of the private sector. Urbanisation is taking place at quite a rapid rate in India. Population residing in urban areas in India, according to 1901 census, was 11.4%.  This count increased to 28.53% according to 2001 census, and crossing 30% as per 2011 census, standing at 31.16%.In 2017, the numbers increased to 34%, according to The World Bank.  According to a survey by UN State of the World Population report in 2007, by 2030, 40.76% of country's population is expected to reside in urban areas.  As per World Bank, India, along with China, Indonesia, Nigeria, and the United States, will lead the world's urban population surge by 2050. URBANISATION IN INDIA
STATISTICS OF URBANISATION IN INDIA
URBANISATION TRENDS IN INDIA
The characteristics of urbanization include, structured facilities, residential, employment centre, communication network, infrastructural facilities, size, density of population, family, marriage, occupation, class extremes, social heterogeneity, social distance, system of interaction and mobility. CHARACTERISTICS OF URBANISATION IN INDIA
URBAN UNITS IN INDIA
EFFECTS OF URBANISATION
URBAN SPRAWL Urban sprawl or real expansion of the cities, both in population and geographical area, of rapidly growing cities is the root cause of urban problems. In most cities the economic base is incapable of dealing with the problems created by their excessive size. Massive immigration from rural areas as well as from small towns into big cities has taken place almost consistently; thereby adding to the size of cities.
Overcrowding is a situation in which too many people live in too little space. Overcrowding is a logical consequence of over-population in urban areas. I overcrowding
HOUSING Overcrowding leads to a chronic problem of shortage of houses in urban areas. This problem is specifically more acute in those urban areas where there is large influx of unemployed or underemployed immigrants who have no place to live in when they enter cities/towns from the surrounding areas.
The problem of unemployment is no less serious than the problem of housing mentioned above. Urban unemployment in India is estimated at 15 to 25 per cent of the labour force. This percentage is even higher among the educated people. UNEMPLOYMENT
The natural sequel of unchecked, unplanned and haphazard growth of urban areas is the growth and spread of slums and squatter settlements which present a striking feature in the ecological structure of Indian cities, especially of metropolitan centres SLUMS AND SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS
6. Transport: With traffic bottleneck and traffic congestion, almost all cities and towns of India are suffering from acute form of transport problem. Transport problems increase and become more complex as the town grows in size. With its growth, the town performs varied and complex functions and more people travel to work or shop.
7. Water: What is one of the most essential elements of nature to sustain life and right from the beginning of urban civilisation, sites for settlements have always been chosen keeping in view the availability of water to the inhabitants of the settlement. However, supply of water started falling short of demand as the cities grew in size and number.
8. Sewerage Problems: Urban areas in India are almost invariably plagued with insufficient and inefficient sewage facilities. Not a single city in India is fully sewered. Resource crunch faced by the municipalities and unauthorised growth of the cities are two major causes of this pathetic state of affairs
9. Trash Disposal: As Indian cities grow in number and size the problem of trash disposal is assuming alarming proportions. Huge quantities of garbage produced by our cities pose a serious health problem. Most cites do not have proper arrangements for garbage disposal and the existing landfills are full to the brim. These landfills are hotbeds of disease and innumerable poisons leaking into their surroundings.