Слайд 2: 1. PHRASEOLOGY AND PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS
Phraseology is a branch of linguistics which studies different types of set expressions, which like words name various objects and phenomena. They exist in the language as ready-made units.
A Phraseological unit (PU) can be defined as a non-motivated word-group that cannot be freely made up in speech, but is reproduced as a ready-made unit. It is a group of words whose meaning cannot be deduced by examining the meaning of the constituent lexemes. The essential features of PU are : 1) lack of motivation; 2) stability of the lexical components.
Слайд 4: 2. FREE-WORD GROUPS vs PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS
Free word-groups Phraseological units are formed in the process of speech according to the standards of the language; exist in the language side-by-side with separate words; are constructed in the process of communication by joining together words into a phrase; are reproduced in speech as ready-made units;
Free word-groups Phraseological units substitution is possible; no substitution is possible; each of its components preserves its denotational meaning; the denotational meaning belongs to the word group as a single semantically inseparable unit;
Free word-groups Phraseological units less structural unity; greater structural unity; components may have any of the forms of their paradigm. components often have just one form of all the forms of their paradigm.
It is important to note that free word-groups are but relatively free. Free word-groups may possess some of the features characteristic of phraseological units. On the other hand, phraseological units are heterogeneous. Alongside absolutely unchangeable phraseological units, there are expressions that allow some degree of substitution. Phraseology is concerned with all types of set expressions including those that stand for certain sentences.
Слайд 8: CLASSIFICATIONS OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS
SEMANTIC CLASSIFICATION OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS (V.V. Vinogradov) is based on the motivation of the unit Phraseological fusions are units whose meaning cannot be deduced from the meanings of their component parts. The meaning of PFs is unmotivated at the present stage of language development, e.g. red tape ( бюрократизм, волокита ), a mare’s nest ( иллюзия, нечто несуществующее ), My aunt! ( вот те на !, вот так штука !, ну и ну !). The meaning of the components is completely absorbed by the meaning of the whole;
Phrasological unities are expressions the meaning of which can be deduced from the meanings of their components; the meaning of the whole is based on the transferred meanings of the components, e.g. to show one’s teeth (to be unfriendly), to stand to one’s guns (to refuse to change one’s opinion), etc. They are motivated expressions.
Phraseological collocations are not only motivated but contain one component used in its direct meaning, while the other is used metaphorically, e.g. to meet requirements, to attain success. In this group of PUs some substitutions are possible which do not destroy the meaning of the metaphoric element, e.g. to meet the needs, to meet the demand, to meet the necessity; to have success, to lose success. These substitutions are not synonymical and the meaning of the whole changes, while the meaning of the verb meet and the noun success are kept intact.
Слайд 11: STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS (A.I. SMIRNITSKY )
Prof. A.I. Smirnitsky classified PUs as highly idiomatic set expressions functioning as word equivalents, and characterized by their semantic and grammatical unity. He suggested three classes of stereotyped phrases: traditional phrases ( nice distinction, rough sketch ; phraseological combinations ( to fall in love, to get up ); idioms ( to wash one’s dirty linen in public );
The second group (phraseological combinations) fall into two subgroups : one-top phraseological units, which were compared with derived words; verb-adverb PUs of the type to give up, e.g. to bring up, to try out, to look up, to drop in, etc. PUs of the type to be tired, e.g. to be surprised, to be up to, etc. Prepositional substantative units, e.g. by heart.
2. two-top phraseological units, which were compared with compound words. attributive-nominal, e.g. brains trust, white elephant, blind alley. Units of this type function as noun equivalents; verb-nominal phrases, e.g. to know the ropes, to take place, etc. phraseological repetitions, e.g. ups and downs, rough and ready, flat as a pancake. They function as adverbs or adjectives equivalents; adverbial multi-top units, e.g. every other day.
Слайд 14: 3.3. SEMANTIC STRUCTURE OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS BY PROF. V.N.TELIYA
The semantic structure of PUs is formed by semantic ultimate constituents called macrocomponents of meaning: 1. Denotational (descriptive) macrocomponent contains the information about the objective reality, it is the procedure connected with categorization, i.e. the classification of phenomena of the reality, based on the typical idea about what is denoted by a PU.
2. Evaluation macrocomponent contains the information about the value of what is denoted by a PU. The rational evaluation may be: positive, e.g. a home from home – ‘a place or situation where one feels completely happy and at ease’; negative, e.g. the lion’s den – ‘a place of great danger’; neutral, e.g., in the flesh – ‘in bodily form’.
3. Motivational macrocomponent correlates with the notion of the inner form of PU. Motivation of a PU can be defined as the aptness of ‘the literal reading’ of a unit to be associated with the denotational and evaluation aspects of meaning. E.g., the literal reading of the PU to have broad shoulders is physical strength of a person. The idea is indicative of a person’s strength becomes the base for transference and forms the meaning of: ‘being able to bear the full weight of one’s responsibilities’.
4. Emotive macrocomponent is the contents of subjective modality expressing feeling-relation to what is denoted by a PU within the range of approval/disapproval, e.g. a leading light in something – ‘a person who is important in a particular group’ (approval), to lead a cat and dog life – ‘used to describe a husband and wife who quarrel furiously with each other most of the time’ (disapproval).
5. Stylistic macrocomponent points to the communicative register in which a PU is used and to the social-role relationships between the participants of communication: formal, e.g. sick at heart – ‘very sad’; informal, e.g. be sick to death – ‘to be angry and bored because something unpleasant has been happening for too long’; neutral, e.g. pass by on the other side – ‘to ignore a person who needs help’.
6. Grammatical macrocomponent contains the information about all possible morphological and syntactic changes of a PU, e.g. to be in deep water = to be in deep waters; to take away smb’s breath = to take smb’s breath away; Achilles’s heel = the heel of Achilles.
7. Gender macrocomponent may be expressed explicitly, i.e. determined by the structure and/or semantics of a PU, and in that case it points out to the class of objects denoted by the PU: men, women, people (both men and women). E.g., compare the PUs every Tom, Dick and Harry meaning ‘every or any man” and every Tom, Dick and Sheila which denotes ‘every or any man and woman’.
Gender macrocomponent may be expressed implicitly and then it denotes the initial (or historical) reference of a phraseological unit, e.g. to wash one’s dirty linen in public – ‘discuss or argue about one’s personal affairs in public’. The implicit idea about traditional women’s work (cf. with Russian: выносить сор из избы ). The implicit gender macrocomponent is defined within the range of three conceptual spheres: masculine, feminine, intergender. Compare, e.g., the implicitly expressed intergender macrocomponent in to feel like royalty meaning ‘to feel like a member of the Royal Family, to feel majestic’ and its counterparts, i.e. phraseological units with explicitly expressed gender macrocomponent, to feel like a queen and to feel like a king.
Слайд 22: 5. TYPES OF TRANSFERENCE OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS
Phraseological transference is a complete or partial change of meaning of an initial word-combination (WC) or a sentence as a result of which the WC (or the sentence) acquires a new meaning and turns into a PU.
1. Transference based on simile, is the intensification of some features of an object (phenomenon, thing) denoted by a PU by means of bringing it into contact with another object (phenomenon, thing) belonging to an entirely different class. Compare: (as) pretty as a picture (as) fat as a pig to fight like a lion to swim like a fish
2. Transference based on metaphor is a likening of the object (phenomenon, action) of reality to another, which is associated with it on the basis of real or imaginable resemblance. E.g., in the PU to bend somebody to one’s bow meaning ‘to submit someone’ transference is based on metaphor, i.e. on the likening of a subordinated, submitted person to a thing (bow) a good command of which allows its owner to do with it everything he wants to.
Metaphors can bear a hyperbolic ( преувеличенный ) character : flog a dead horse – ( стегать дохлую лошадь ). Metaphors may also have a euphemistic character which serves to soften unpleasant facts: go to one’s long rest, join the majority – ‘to die’.
3. Transference based on metonymy is a transfer of name from one object (phenomenon, thing, etc.) to another based on the contiguity of their properties, relations, etc. It is conditioned by close ties between the two objects, e.g., the metonymical transference in the PU a silk stocking meaning ‘a rich, well-dressed man’ is based on the replacement of the genuine object (a man) by the article of clothing which was very fashionable and popular among men in the past.
4. Transference based on synecdoche is naming the whole by its part, the replacement of the common by the private, of the plural by the singular and vice versa. E.g., the components flesh and blood in the PU in the flesh and blood meaning ‘in a material form’ as the integral parts of the real existence replace a person himself or any living being. Synecdoche is usually used in combination with other types of transference, e.g. metaphor: to hold one’s tongue – ‘to say nothing, to be discreet’.