Первый слайд презентации: Peter’s reform for war
Names: Jaafar Ramadan Hassane Arar Group: 20ll1 A
Слайд 4: Peter’s reform for war:
Peter the Great's military reforms massively modernised Russia's Army and Navy. By his death in 1725, Russia's military was a force to be reckoned with.... Peter the Great took the bets parts of both systems and introduced a standing army in 1699. All soldiers received similar training so that the army had uniformity. Massively : On a vast scale Bets : risk a sum of money or valued item against someone else's on the basis of the outcome of an unpredictable event such as a race or game.
Слайд 6: Peter’s reform of war:
Upon returning to Moscow, from 23 September to 18 October 1694 Peter organized grandiose military manœuvres involving over 7,000 men. A satirical pamphlet recorded the exercises along with exhibitions such as twenty-five dwarfs marching to military music. With the Streltsy again slated for defeat, ‘bombardier Peter Alekseev’ celebrated his last simulated engagement before real battle with Turks and Tatars. In concert with the Holy League of Austria, Poland-Lithuania, and Venice with financial backing from the papacy, the 22-year-old tsar aimed to mount the international stage by recouping Vasilii Golitsyn's losses. Pamphlet: a small booklet or leaflet containing information or arguments about a single subject. simulated pretended or feigned
Слайд 7: Peter’s reform of the war:
Overweening ambition was apparent in Peter’s choice of the primary target: the Ottoman fortress of Azov near the mouth of the Don river. A more difficult objective than the Crimea itself, Azov would require combined land and sea operations. Peter and his senior military advisers sought to avoid Golitsyn’s error of marching across barren steppes by bringing most forces far south by boat. The main attack was also augmented by a thrust westward under the boyar Boris Sheremetev to divert Tatar forces and capture Turkish border forts. Ambition: a strong desire to do or achieve something. Suffered: experience or be subjected to (something bad or unpleasant).
Слайд 8: Peter’s Reform of the war:
Peter and his senior military advisers sought to avoid Golitsyn’s error of marching across barren steppes by bringing most forces far south by boat. The main attack was also augmented by a thrust westward under the boyar Boris Sheremetev to divert Tatar forces and capture Turkish border forts. sought; attempt or desire to obtain or achieve (something) Steppes: a large area of flat unforested grassland in south-eastern Europe or Siberia. Augmented: having been made greater in size or value.
Слайд 9: Peter’s reform of war
Though the siege of Azov began by early July 1695, lack of a flotilla precluded any naval blockade; while the Ottomans reinforced and resupplied their garrison by sea, the attackers suffered great losses from Turkish sallies and the absence of unified command. Peter’s insistence on a desperate storm on 5 August brought huge losses; a mining operation on 16 September harmed only the besiegers; another costly assault the next day barely failed. Lifting the siege on 20 October, the Muscovites sustained further losses–from exhaustion, frosts, and disease–during the retreat. Siege: military operation in which enemy forces surround a town or building, cutting off essential supplies, with the aim of compelling those inside to surrender. Precluded: prevent from happening; make impossible
Слайд 10: Peter’s reform of the war:
The new year began inauspiciously: Peter fell ill for nearly a month and his brother Ivan died suddenly on 29 January. Ivan’s death formally ended the dynastic dualism, affirmed Peter’s sole sovereignty, and cleared the way for an aggressively reformist militarist regime. Health restored, Peter hurried to Voronezh to assemble hundreds of barges and galleys for the new attack. If the first Azov campaign proved more difficult than anticipated, the second brought the fortress’s capitulation with stunning ease on 19–20 July 1696. Austrian engineers assisted in supervising the siege-works. Command of the land forces was centralized under ‘generalissimus’ Aleksei Shein. Anticipated: regard as probable; expect or predict. Bargers: One who barges or shoves. (obsolete) The manager of a barge.
Слайд 11: The Victory of peter:
Ironically, Muscovite sea-power had predetermined the outcome by forestalling Ottoman relief efforts although Cossack boats did most of the fighting at close quarters–not the vessels built so feverishly at Voronezh. Sailing into the Sea of Azov, Peter sought out a site for a new naval station some leagues westward, at a point called Taganrog. Construction began at once as did rebuilding Azov itself; the Muscovites intended to stay permanently. Returning to Moscow in late September, Peter staged a Roman-style triumph with ceremonial gates–the first of many–decorated with Julius Caesar’s aphorism: ‘He came, he saw, he conquered’. A more menacing demonstration transpired at Preobrazhenskoe a week later: the Dutch deserter Jakob Jansen, whose betrayal had dearly cost the first Azov campaign, was broken on the wheel and then beheaded before a huge crowd. Predetermined: established or decided in advance Feverishly: frenetically excited or energetic manner.
Последний слайд презентации: Peter’s reform for war: Questions:
When did Peter organised the grandiose military manoeuvres? What was the influence of Peter’s insistant on 5 August? What was the plan of Peter and his senior military advisers? What did Peter do after his sickness? Did Peter stage a Ruman- style triumph?