Первый слайд презентации: PETER THE GREAT RULE
Presented by Abdel Ilah and Ammar Dahouk.
Слайд 2: PLANE
Background of Peter the Great Early Reign The Great Nothern War Saint Petersburg Reforms in Russia Effects of Peters Reforms Questions
Слайд 3: BACKGROUND OF PETER THE GREAT
Peter reign was from May 7 th 1682 to November 2 nd 1721. He coreined with his half-brother Ivan V from 1682-1696 when Ivan died. Emperor of all Russia,Sovereign,he was the Great Father of his Country.Emperor of the East and Tsar by the Archbishop of Pskov in 1721. On February 8,1725.He was fifty-two years,seven months old when he died, having reigned forty-two years.
Слайд 4: EARLY REIGN
Peter wanted to modernize Russia and also make it a military power.Peter made his military power know by brutally suppressing any and all rebellions against his authority:Streltsy,Bashkirs,Astrakhan and the greatest civil uprising of his reign, the Bulavin Rebellion.
Слайд 5: EARLY REIGN
He also wanted to improve Russia’s positions on the seas. Peterattempted to acquire control of the Black Sea; to do so he wouldhave to expel the Tatars from the surrounding areas.
Слайд 6: EARLY REIGN
In 1695 Peter organized the Azov campaigns to take the fortress,but his attempts failed. Peter returned to Moscow in Novemberof that year and began building a large navy.
Слайд 7: EARLY REIGN
He launched about thirty ships against the Ottomans in 1696,capturing Azov in July of that year. On September 12, 1698, Peterofficially founded the first Russian Navy base, Taganrog.
Слайд 8: THE GREAT NOTHERN WAR
Peter made a temporary peace with the Ottoman Empire that allowed him to keep the captured fort of Azov, and turned his attention to Russian sea/port supremacy. He sought to acquire control of the Baltic Sea, which had been taken by the Swedish Empire. Peter declared war on Sweden, which was at the time led by King Charles XII. • Russia was ill-prepared to fight the Swedes, and their first attempt at seizing the Baltic coast ended in disaster at the Battle of Narva in 1700. In the conflict, the forces of Charles XII used a blinding snowstorm to their advantage. After the battle, Charles XII decided to concentrate his forces against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which gave Peter time to reorganize the Russian army. • Charles XII invaded Russia in 1708. After crossing into Russia, Charles defeated Peter at Golovchin. In the Battle of Lesnaya, Charles suffered his first loss after Peter crushed a group of Swedish reinforcements marching from Riga. Deprived of this aid, Charles was forced to abandon his proposed march on Moscow.
Слайд 9: SAINT PETERSBURG
After the Great Northern War, Peter retained some Finnish lands close to Saint Petersburg, which he had made his capital in 1712. • All building had to conform strictly to detailed architectural regulations set down by the government. Each social group was also to live in a certain section of the town. • Peasants were drafted just like the army to build the city. Every 10 to 15 peasant household families had to provided 1 worker every summer. And they had to pay a special tax in order to feed that worker. • Nobles were also drafted. They lived in St. Petersburg most of the year. The more serfs that noble possessed, the bigger their house had to be. • These nobles and merchants were than required to pay for the city’s avenues, parks, canals, embankments, pilings, and bridges. • The building of the city was a direct levied tax on the wealthy, which in turn forced the peasantry to do most of the work. • In 1725 construction of Peterhof, a palace near Saint Petersburg, was completed. Peterhof was a grand residence, becoming known as the "Russian Versailles"
Слайд 10: REFORMS IN RUSSIA
During Peter's reign the Russian Orthodox Church was reformed. The traditional leader of the Church was the Patriarch of Moscow. • In 1700, when the office fell vacant, Peter refused to name a replacement, allowing the Patriarch's deputy to discharge the duties of the office. • In 1721 Peter created the Holy Synod, a council of ten clergymen, to take the place of the Patriarch and deputy. • Peter implemented a law that said that no Russian man could join a monastery before the age of 50. He felt that too many able Russian men were being wasted on clerical work when they could be joining his new and improved army. There were very few men who became monks during Peter's reign, much to the dismay of the Russian Church. • In 1722 Peter created a new order of precedence known as the Table of Ranks. Formerly, precedence had been determined by birth. To deprive the Boyars of their high positions, Peter directed that precedence should be determined by merit and service to the Emperor. The Table of Ranks continued to remain in effect until the Russian monarchy was overthrown in 1917.
Слайд 11: EFFECTS OF PETERS REFORMS
• Many westerners and western ideas flowed into Russia because of Peter’s desire to use modern technology to strengthen the army. • A new class of educated Russians began to emerge. • The split between the enserfed peasantry and the educated nobility widened. • His developments paved the way for Russia to move closer to the European mainstream in its thought and institutions during the Enlightenment, especially under Catherine the Great
Слайд 12: QUESTIONS
When are Peter become the king? What are the maine action in the early reign? What are the battle present in the Nothern War? What are the changes of SAINT PETERSBURG andRUSSIA in this century? What are the effects of Peters reforms?