Презентация на тему: Personality

Psychoanalytic theory
Sources of tension
Ego defence mechanisms
Ego defence mechanisms
Freud’s methods of investigation
Differences between negative reinforcement and punishment
Humanistic theory
Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs
Chart 2. Personality theory
The Big 5 theory
Five Personality Traits
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Первый слайд презентации: Personality

can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations originates from the Latin persona, which means mask in the theatre of the ancient Latin-speaking world the mask was a convention employed to represent or typify character

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Слайд 2

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Слайд 3: Psychoanalytic theory

Human behavior is determined by a person's past (childhood) experiences, which color his/her perceptions of current events

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Слайд 5: Id

Id Ignored or repressed Energy builds up Psychological tension Instincts and impulses Does not recognize reality Artificial means Temporary solution

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Слайд 6: Ego

At about the age of one year Recognize reality (what is possible) Diverts id’s energy into other areas of behavior (reduce tension) The aim: ensure that the instincts of the id are satisfied, but at the right time and place

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Слайд 7: Superego

Between the ages of three and five ‘idealistic’ part of us Strive to make us perfect Try to develop moral attitudes

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Superego Id Demands we seek the pleasure of satisfying our bodily urges as soon as they arise Moral attitudes To make us good in the sense of the community to which we belong Conflict

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Слайд 9: Sources of tension

Physiological growth Frustration Conflict Threat

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Слайд 10: Ego defence mechanisms

Repression Pulling into the unconscious Projection Placing unacceptable impulses in yourself onto someone else Reaction formation Reverses the impulse Regression Return to a previous stage of development Denial Arguing against an anxiety provoking stimuli by stating it doesn’t exist

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Слайд 11: Ego defence mechanisms

Displacement Taking out impulses on a less threatening target Rationalization Supplying a logical or rational reason as opposite to the real reason Intellectualization Avoiding unacceptable emotions by focusing on the intellectual aspects Sublimation Acting out unacceptable impulses in a socially acceptable way

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Слайд 12: Freud’s methods of investigation

Self-analysis Case study Free association

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Слайд 13: Behaviorism

Human behavior results from an organism's past learning, current perceptions, and higher-level processes of thinking and organization Only observable behaviors are worthy of research since other abstractions are too subjective

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Behaviorism Classical Radical The behaviorism of Watson the objective study of behavior; no mental life, no internal states Skinner’s behaviorism internal states could influence behavior just as external stimuli

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Слайд 15: Reinforcement

Positive Reinforcement. Adding something in order to increase a response. Negative Reinforcement. Taking something negative away in order to increase a response. Punishment. Punishment refers to adding something aversive in order to decrease a behavior. Extinction. When you remove something in order to decrease a behavior.

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Слайд 16: Differences between negative reinforcement and punishment

negative reinforcement encourages the subject to behave a certain way punishment encourages a subject to stop behaving in a certain way negative reinforcement entails removing a negative event punishment entails introducing a negative event

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Слайд 17: Humanistic theory

Human behavior can be understood only in terms of the person's internal perceptions of self and others leading toward personal fulfillment

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Слайд 18: Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs

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Слайд 19: Chart 2. Personality theory

Psychoanalytic theory Behaviorism Humanistic theory Originator(s) Human nature Drives of behavior Methods of investigation Goal of therapy Sigmund Freud Conflict between conscious and unconscious drives Energy from within (instincts) Single case studies, free association To lessen the unconscious pressures B.F. Skinner, I. Pavlov Neutral. Result of learning Reinforcement Scientific observation To change behavior in the desired direction A. Maslow Positive, evolving free will in people Needs satisfaction Case studies Self-actualization

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Слайд 20: The Big 5 theory

model is not based on the theory of any one particular psychologist, but rather on language 1936 Gordon Allport H. S. Odbert Sir Francis Galton 17,953 personality-describing words 4,504 adjectives 1940 Raymond Cattell reduced the total to 171 words 35 major clusters of personality traits 1981 16 major personality factors 1963 Warren Norman identified 5 recurring factors of personality widespread acceptance of the Five Factor Model NEO five-factor personality inventory (Paul Costa and Robert McCrae, 1985)

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Последний слайд презентации: Personality: Five Personality Traits

Extroversion Emotional Stability Orderliness Accommodation Intellectual Curiosity

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