Первый слайд презентации: Old English borrowings
Подготовила Жуйкова София Сергеевна, группа ПП/с-18-1-2
Old English has only words from two sources- from Latin and Celtic languages. Some words taken over from Latin had been borrowed by Latin from Greek.
Слайд 3: Latin
These may be classified into two layers: (1) the oldest layer words taken over either directly from the Romans before the Anglo- Saxons settled in Britain, or from the Celtic inhabitants of Britain, (2) the second layer: words concerning religion and the church, taken over after the introduction of Christianity, which began in 597; these words belorng to the 7th century.
Слайд 4: First Layer
Here belong, on the one hand, names of objects of material culture, and on the other, names of products which the Anglo-Saxons bought from Roman merchants. The first group is represented by the words : stræt ' street ', from Latin strāta ( via ) ' paved road '; weall ' wall ' from Latin vallum ; cycene ' kitchen ' from Latin coquina ; myln ' mill ' from Latin molīnum ; pipor ' pepper ' irom Latin piper ; wīn " wine ' from Latin vīnum.
The Latin substantive castra ' camp ' made part of a number of names of cities, which were camps in the Roman epoch : Chester, Manchester, Winchester, Worcester, Leicester ; Latin colonia has been preserved in the place names Lincoln, Colchester ; Latin portus ' port ' in Portsmouth, Bridport, Latin strata in Stratford ; Latin fossa ' moat ' in Fosstway, Fosbroke.
Слайд 6: Second Layer
The second layer consists of words which directly or indirectly belong to the sphere of religion and church. When Christianity was introduced in England, the Latin language came to be used as language of the church. At this time a certain number of Latin words were taken over into English : biscop ' bishop ' from Latin episcopus, Greek episkopos ; cleric ' church man ' from Latin clericus, Greek klērikós ; apostol ' apostle ' from Latin apostolus, Greek apóstolos ; deofol ' devil ' from Latin diabolus, Greek diábolos ; mæsse ' mass ' from Latin missa ; munuc ' monk ' from Latin monachus, Greek monachós ; māʒister ' teacher ' from Latin magister ; scrifan ' prescribe ' from Latin scribere. Some Latin loan-words yielded derivatives : biscophād ' bishopric ', biscepunʒ ' becoming a bishop ', scrift ' shrift '.
Under Latin influence some native English words acquired new meanings : thus, the substantive ēastron, which originally denoted a heathen spring holiday, acquired the meaning ' Easter '. Some new terms were created on the pattern of Latin words, e.g. ʒ ōdspell ' gospel ' ( literally ' good news '), prēnes ' Trinity '.
Слайд 8: Celtic
Celtic languages had but a marginal influence on the English vocabulary. Among Celtic loan-words we may mention dūn ( MnE down ) ' dune ', dun ' dun ', binn ' bin '.
Some Celtic elements have been preserved in geographical names : Gaelic amhuin ' river ' in Avon, Evan ; Gaelic cothair ' fortress ' in Carnarvon ; Gaelic uisge ' water ' in Exe, Usk, Esk ; dun, dum ' hill ' in Dumbarton, Dumfries, Dunedin ; llan ' church ' in Llandaff, Llandovery, Llandudno ; coil ' forest ' in Kilbrook, Killiemore ; kil ' church ' in Kilbride, Kilmacolm ; Ceann ' cape ' in Kebadre, Kingussie ; inis ' island ' in Innisfail ; inbher ' mountain ' in Inverness, Inverurie ; bail ' house ' in Ballantrae, Ballyshannon.
On the whole, the percentage of loan-words in OE was very insignificant, as compared with later periods.