Первый слайд презентации
Nucleic acids (DNA & RNA)
Watson and Crick discovered the double helix by building models to conform to X-ray data In April 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick shook the scientific world with an elegant double-helical model or the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA. Watson and Crick began to work on a model of DNA with two strands, the double helix.
A gene is a small region in the DNA. Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information. There are two types of nucleic acids: 1)- r ibo n ucleic a cid ( RNA ); 2)- d eoxyribo n ucleic a cid ( DNA ). DNA also directs mRNA synthesis, thus, controls protein synthesis. Organisms inherit DNA from their parents. Each DNA molecule is very long and usually consists of hundreds to thousands of genes. When a cell divides, its DNA is copied and passed to the next generation of cells. The mRNA interacts with ribosomes to direct the synthesis of amino acids in a polypeptide (protein)
Слайд 4: Structures of nucleic acids (DNA & RNA)
o H H H H H CH 2 o P o o o Sugar-phosphate backbone Base o P o o o o H H H H H CH 2 Base DNA nucleotide Bases Thymine (T) Adenine (A) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) Purine Pyrimidine Deoxyribose Phosphate group 1 2 3 4 5 3 5 3 5 3
Fig. 16.3, Page 290 The PO 4 group of one nucleotide is attached to the sugar of the next nucleotide in line. The result is a “ backbone ” of alternating phopates and sugars, from which the bases starts.
Слайд 6: Nitrogenous bases
Sugar-phosphate backbones Thymine (T) Adenine (A) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) Purine Pyrimidines Hydrogen bonds Nitrogenous bases 5 3 5 3 Uracil (U)
Слайд 7: The nucleic acid strand is a polymer of nucleotides
Nucleic acids are polymers of monomers called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of three parts: a nitrogen base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. The nitrogen bases ( rings of carbon and nitrogen ) come in two types: Purines and Pyrimidines. The pentose sugar joined to the nitrogen base is ribose in nucleotides of RNA and deoxyribose in DNA. The only difference between the sugars is the lack of an oxygen atom on carbon 2 in deoxyribose.
Polynucleotides are synthesized by connecting the sugars of one nucleotide to the phosphate of the next with a phosphodiester link. This creates a repeating backbone of sugar-phosphate units with the nitrogen bases as appendages. The sequence of nitrogen bases along a DNA or mRNA polymer is unique for each gene. Genes are normally hundreds to thousands of nucleotides long. The linear order of bases in a gene specifies the order of amino acids ( the monomers of a protein ).
An RNA molecule is single polynucleotide chain ( single strand ). DNA molecules have two polynucleotide strands ( double strand ) that spiral around to form a double helix.
The sugar-phosphate backbones of the two polynucleotides are on the outside of the helix. Pairs of nitrogenous bases (one from each strand) connect the polynucleotide chains with hydrogen bonds. Most DNA molecules have thousands to millions of base pairs ( bP ).
Слайд 11: r ibo n ucleic a cid ( RNA)
a)- Messenger RNA (mRNA) is the blueprint for construction of a protein. b)- Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the construction site where the protein is made in the ribosome. c)- Transfer RNA (tRNA) is the truck delivering the proper amino acid to the site at the right time.
Слайд 12: DNA RNA
o H H H H H CH 2 Deoxyribose sugar ( O on C2 is missed ) o OH H H H H CH 2 Ribose sugar ( no missed O ) R ibo- N ucleic- A cid D eoxiribo- N ucleic- A cid Single stranded nucleic acid Double stranded nucleic acid Bases: A, G, C, T Bases: A, G, C, U
Repeated Sugar - Phosphate Sugar–Phosphate-Base Polynucleotide DNA backbone One nucleotide DNA Molecule DNA Double stranded RNA single stranded T C G A T A G A G T C T A C U U mRNA D NA
Последний слайд презентации: Nucleic acids (DNA & RNA): Terminology
English Russian Kazakh Nucleic acids Нуклеиновая кислота Нуклеин қышқылы Deoxyribonucleic acid Дезоксирибонуклеиновая кислота Дезоксирибонуклеин қышқылы Ribonucleic acid Рибонуклениновая кислота Рибонуклеин қышқылы Nucleotide Нуклеотид Нуклеотид Nitrogenous bases Азотистые основания Азоттық негіздер Phosphate group Фосфатная группа Фосфат тобы Pentose sugar Сахар пентоза Қант пентоза Purines Пурины Пуриндер Pyrimidines Пиримидины Пиримидиндер Amino acids Аминокислоты Аминқышқылы Protein Белок Ақуыз