Первый слайд презентации: New Beginnings: The First Romanov
DIVYANSH SAINIK 20LL5[a] NIRAJ DHAMOT 20LL5[a]
Слайд 2: Project plan
RULER FOR THE THRONE OF MUSCOVY FOREIGN POLICY AND WAR INTERNAL AFFAIRS AND THE SMOLENSK WAR THE FINAL YEARS
Слайд 3: RULER FOR THE THRONE OF MUSCOVY
Tsar Michael in popular literature–was only one of several candidates for the throne of Muscovy. 17 years of age, he had already been considered for this position three years earlier. some proposed to summon a foreigner–either Archduke Maximilian of Habsburg or the Swedish prince, Karl Phillip.
Слайд 4: THE CHOSSEN CANDIDAT
There was strong preference to choose a Russian candidate. Rivalry among candidates eventually eliminated all but the young Romanov, widely regarded as a surrogate for his father Filaret. T he latter’s martyr‑like captivity, in fact, contributed to his son’s election. The electoral assembly of 700 delegates was initially unable to reach a consensus. But on 21 February 1613 finally Michael be chosen as the compromise candidate.
Слайд 5: FOREIGN POLICY AND WAR
THE ACCOMPLISHMENTS BEFORE FILARET’S RETURN The primary task was to equip an army to fight the Swedes and Poles; because of the economic destruction and stolen bands of peasants & Cossacks, proved extremely difficult to raise the funds. To obtain the needed levies, Michael ordered some‘councils of the realm ’ which was unissued. The government used information of economic conditions in the provinces to impose taxes–normally 5 %, sometimes to 10 %, of the property value and the business turnover. Also, forced the richest merchants to make contributions and loans. By 1618 the government had raised seven special levies to cut a budget loss that, had run over 340,000 roubles.
Слайд 6: RELATIONS WITH POLAND‑LITHUANIA
They were more difficult. Poles declined to recognize Michael and Russians refused to accept Władysław as tsar. After mediation collapsed Poles launched a new military offensive and were able to attack Moscow. T wo sides agreed to an armistice of fourteen and a half years: both were exhausted from the conflict, the Polish Sejm denied more funds, and Moscow fervently wanted an exchange of prisoners. The armistice, signed in the village of Deulino compelled Moscow to renounce its claim to west Russian areas.
Слайд 7: Internal affairs and the Smolensk war
After his return in 1619, Filaret became the patriarch of Moscow. The world now seemed to be in order, even in the relations between father and son. the government faced serious problems; in addition to seeking vengeance on Poland. Filaret had to address the question of tax reform. To finance the Streltsy. In 1614, the government already imposed some new special levies–‘ Streltsy money’ from townspeople and ‘ Streltsy grain’ from peasants.
Слайд 8: Internal affairs and the Smolensk war
The government also increased the ‘ postal money ’, the largest regular tax. Because of the principle of collective responsibility ( krugovaia poruka ). T hose who remained behind had to assume the obligations of the bondsmen and thus pay even higher taxes.
Слайд 9: Internal affairs and the Smolensk war
Ever since 1584 the government had periodically prohibited this form of tax evasion, but with scant effect. Filaret also failed to achieve a satisfactory solution. Patriarchate owned approximately a thousand plots of land in Moscow. More successful in the long run was the gradual conversion of the tax base from land to household, a process that commenced in the 1620s but only reached completion in 1679. Filaret’s policy towards towns was still less successful.
Слайд 10: The final years
T he war drew Muscovy even closer to the West. Besides the Troops of the New Order (temporarily disbanded for lack of funds). The most tangible sign of Europeanization was the influx of Western merchants and entrepreneurs. Dominance shifted from the English to the Dutch: Andries Winius obtained monopoly rights to construct ironworks in the towns of Tula and Serpukhov (the first blast furnace began operations in 1637) T he Walloon Coyet established the first glass plant in the environs of Moscow.
Слайд 11: THE FINAL YEARS
The Orthodox Church was able to contain Western influence in cultural matters. The main spiritual influence, instead, came from Ukraine –for example, a proposal in 1640. T he metropolitan of Kiev, Petr Mohyla, to establish an ecclesiastical academy in Moscow. The Church also denounced as ‘heresy’ the correction of church books, which had commenced in 1618. In foreign affairs too the tsar had to make a difficult decision.
Последний слайд презентации: New Beginnings: The First Romanov: QUESTIONS:
Before filaret’s return, what stimulated to raise funds? What did government do with the information of economic condition of the provinces ? What is the largest regular tax? What was the most tangible sign of Europeanization?