Первый слайд презентации: MOTIVATION
1 MOTIVATION 02 Sayed Gheyasuddin SAADAT firstname.lastname@example.org
Слайд 2: Nature of Motivation
2 Nature of Motivation Motivation is the force energising behaviour, giving direction to behaviour, and underlying the tendency to persist.
Слайд 4: Nature of Motivation
4 Nature of Motivation Ability Motivation Environmental Conditions Performance = x X
Слайд 5: Types of Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation: A person’s internal desire to do something due to interest, challenge personal satisfaction. Extrinsic Motivation: Motivation that comes from outside the person such as pay, bonus, and other tangible awards. Types of Motivation
Слайд 6: Needs theories
6 Needs theories Need theories argue that we behave as we do due to the internal needs we attempt to fulfil. Hierarchy of needs theory (Maslow): Theory arguing that individual needs form a five-level hierarchy.
Слайд 8: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological Needs: Hunger, thirst and bodily needs. Safety Needs: Security and protection. Social Needs: Affection, belongingness and friendship. Esteem Needs: Includes internal esteem factors, such as self respect, autonomy, achievement and external esteem factors such as status recognition and attention. Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming; it includes growth and achieving one’s potential. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Слайд 9: Need theories
9 2. Two-factor theory (Herzberg) Herzberg’s theory that hygiene factors are necessary to keep workers from feeling dissatisfied but, only motivators can lead workers to feel satisfied and motivated. Need theories
Слайд 10: Two-factor theory (Herzberg)
Motivators: factors seeming to make individuals feel satisfied with their jobs. Hygiene Factors: factors seeming to make individuals feel dissatisfied with their job. Two-factor theory (Herzberg)
11 Achievement Responsibility Work itself Recognition Growth Advancement Pay Working Conditions Supervisors Company Policies Fringe benefits Hygiene factors Motivators These factors help prevent dissatisfaction. These factors promote satisfaction. Need theories Neutral point at which there is no dissatisfaction & no satisfaction
13 3. ERG theory (Clayton Alderfer ) Alternative to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, which argues that there are three levels of individual needs. Needs theories
14 E xistence needs Physiological (food, water) Pay Benefits Working conditions R elatedness needs Relationships with family, work and professional groups G rowth needs Creativity Innovation Productivity Productive impact on s urroundings Need theories ERG theory
15 4. Acquired needs theory (David McClelland) Theory stating that our needs are acquired or learned on the basis of our life experiences. Need theories
16 Acquired needs theory Developed by David McClelland — cites the need for achievement, power, and affiliation as major motives in work Need for achievement — drive to excel Need for power — influence others behavior Need for affiliation — desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships Need theories
Слайд 17: Acquired need theory
Need for Achievement ( nAch ): Is the desire to accomplish challenging tasks and achieve a standard of excellence in one’s work. McCelland argues high- nAch individuals may not be motivated by money (as they get satisfaction mainly from achievement). Nevertheless, they may still see money as a source of feedback on their progress. Acquired need theory
Слайд 18: Acquired need theory
Need for Power ( nPow ): The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. Personal Power : Need for power in which individuals want to dominate others for the sake of demonstrating their ability to wield (administer) power. Institutional Power: Need for power in which individuals focus on working with other to solve problems and further organizational goals. Acquired need theory
Слайд 19: Acquired need theory
Need for Affiliation ( nAff ): Is the desire maintain warm, friendly relationships with others. High- nAff individuals tend to work in professions demanding interaction with others, such as health care, teaching, sales and counseling. Such individuals can be assessed in situations needing high-level cooperation with and support of others. Acquired need theory
Слайд 20: A Comparison of the Need Theories
Maslow (need hierarchy) Self-actualization Esteem Belongingness, social, and love Safety and security Physiological Herzberg (two-factor theory) The work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Achievement Recognition Quality of inter- personal relations among peers, with supervisors, with subordinates Job security Working conditions Salary Alderfer Growth Relatedness Existence McClelland Need for achievement Need for power Need for affiliation Motivators Hygiene conditions Higher order needs Basic needs
21 5. Reinforcement theory (B.F. Skinner) Theory arguing that our behaviour can be explained by consequences in the environment. Types of reinforcement: Positive Uses pleasant, rewarding consequences to encourage desired behaviour. Use of shaping. Negative (unpleasant) stimuli so an individual will engage in the desired behaviour to stop the stimuli.
22 Types of reinforcement: Extinction Stopping previously available positive outcomes from a behaviour to decrease the behaviour. Punishment Providing negative consequences to decrease or discourage a behaviour.