Слайд 2: Physical Ability can / could / be able to
Study the examples. 1. Don’t help her. She can do everything herself. / She is able to do everything herself. 2. Could she read when she was five years old ? ( могла ли, умела ли ) 3. Although it was very dark, she was able to read the note. ( смогла, сумела прочитать )
4. Was she able to understand it? ( смогла ли она понять ) 5. She couldn’t do it. / She wasn’t able to do it. / She was unable to do it. ( не могла, не умела, не смогла, не сумела ) 6. I’m sure s he will be able to finish the work. ( справится, сумеет ) 7. To do this job well you must be able to use many different computer applications. ( должны уметь : must can )
Слайд 4: Obligation must/ have to / need / be to
Study the examples. 1. Everyone must be responsible for their academic progress. ( должен по мнению говорящего; выражает убежденность, моральные принципы ) 2. I ’ m a naval architect. I have to know how to design and construct a ship’s steel structure*. ( должен знать в силу внешних обстоятельств, не по личному мнению ) * steel structure – прочный корпус 3. I had to carry out a lot of experiments before making this decision. ( прошедшая форма, соответствующая и have to, и must ) 4. The delegates to the conference are to arrive tomorrow. ( должны приехать в соответствии с программой мероприятия )
Слайд 5: Probability must/may/might/can
Study the examples. 1. She must remember what happened. ( несомненно помнит ) 2. They may / might know something about it. ( может быть, знают ) 3. He may not / might not have the same opinion as you. ( возможно, не придерживается того же мнения ) 4. He can’t like such things, I’m sure of that. ( не может быть, чтобы ему нравились / наверняка не нравятся )
Слайд 6: Suggestion, Advice, Request, Permission should / shouldn’t / must / s hall/ can / could / will/ would / be allowed to
Study the examples. 1. Those chemicals are dangerous. You should / must wear gloves when working with them. ( Тебе следует / Ты непременно должен … ) 2. He looks very tired. He shouldn’t work so much. ( Ему не следует … ) 3. ‘ Shall I switch on the computer?’ ‘ Please do.’ ( Включить компьютер? ) 4. ‘ Shall we watch the experiment together?’ ‘ Yes, let ’ s.’ ( Понаблюдаем за опытом вместе? )
5. ( неофиц. ) ( вежливо ) ( офиц. ) ‘ Can I ‘ Could I ‘ May I look at your notes?’ ‘Here you are.’ ( Можно я посмотрю ваш конспект? ) 6. ( неофиц. ) ( вежливо ) ‘ Can you / ‘ Will you ‘ Could you / ‘ Would you explain to me how the machine works ?’ ‘ I ’ m sorry, I can ’ t.’ ( Не могли бы вы объяснить … ? ) 7. He may watch TV. He is allowed to watch TV. You may share the work with another student. You are allowed to share the work with another student.
Слайд 8: Choose the English equivalents
a ) Я должен ; 1. I can 2. I have to 3. I am able to b ) О н может ; 1. He must 2. He has to 3. He may c ) О на должна была ; 1. She was able 2. She had to 3. She was allowed to d ) М ы могли ; 1. We had to 2. We could 3. We were to e ) О ни должны были ; 1. They are allowed 2. They were able to 3. They were to f ) Я смогу, сумею. 1. I will be able to 2. I will be allowed to 3. I will have to
Study the examples and translate the sentences. 1. I can play volleyball well, but I am not able to play now because I have broken my leg. 2. Her English is very poor, she must study very hard. 3. She must be at home now, I saw her leaving the university. 4. He had to sit up late with this work. 5. We must have met somewhere, your face seems very familiar to me.
6. There was to be an interesting concert last night but I didn’t feel well and had to stay at home. 7. I had some free time yesterday, so I could write a few letters. 8. He was allowed to come home late. 9. She can answer any questions. 10. The plane can’t take off because of the bad weather.
Fill in the gaps with the appropriate modal verbs. 1. I... not go to the theatre with them last night. I... revise the grammar rules for the test. 2. He lives a long way from his office, so he... get up early. 3. You... work hard to master English as soon as possible. 4.... we discuss this question now? - No. We … do it tomorrow afternoon.
5. … I take your pen? 6. You … go to the south. You … not stay in the town. 7. We … check the instruments before the experiment. 8. The engineers … to put off the test. 9. They … to change their plans. 10. We will … to start the work on time.
Последний слайд презентации: Modal Verbs and their Equivalents
Match the sentence halves in a correct way and translate. We will be able to get to this place Children were not allowed I hope, you hadn’t You mustn’t drink alcohol We mustn’t keep medicines in the places You needn’t speak so loudly You will be able I can translate I couldn’t buy The plane must take off at 9 o’clock p.m. because everybody can hear you well this text without any dictionary where children can take them to speak English well soon any vegetables yesterday when you drive to wait for me so long if we go by bus 50 to go to cinema in the evening