Презентация на тему: Medical academy named after S.I Georgievsky of vamadsky CFU

Medical academy named after S.I Georgievsky of vamadsky CFU
Medical academy named after S.I Georgievsky of vamadsky CFU
Medical academy named after S.I Georgievsky of vamadsky CFU
Medical academy named after S.I Georgievsky of vamadsky CFU
Medical academy named after S.I Georgievsky of vamadsky CFU
Medical academy named after S.I Georgievsky of vamadsky CFU
Medical academy named after S.I Georgievsky of vamadsky CFU
Medical academy named after S.I Georgievsky of vamadsky CFU
Medical academy named after S.I Georgievsky of vamadsky CFU
Medical academy named after S.I Georgievsky of vamadsky CFU
Medical academy named after S.I Georgievsky of vamadsky CFU
Medical academy named after S.I Georgievsky of vamadsky CFU
Medical academy named after S.I Georgievsky of vamadsky CFU
Medical academy named after S.I Georgievsky of vamadsky CFU
Medical academy named after S.I Georgievsky of vamadsky CFU
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Department of medical biology Scientific Leader NAME – sinchan Poojary puttu GROUP NUM– 193-A Phd.SVETLANA SMIRNOVA “Population as the basic unit of evolution Characteristics of population ”

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“In biology, a  population  is all the  organisms  of the same group or  species  who live in a particular  geographical area  and are capable of interbreeding. [1] [2]  The area of a  sexual  population is the area where  inter-breeding  is possible between any pair within the area and more probable than  cross-breeding  with individuals from other areas”

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The difference of morphological characteristics and population structure Morphological Characteristics A group of organism sharing a unique collection Of structural and functional charcterstic

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Characteristics of Population Ecology A  population  is all of one kind of species residing in a particular location.  Population  size represents the total number of individuals in a habitat.  Population  density refers to how many individuals reside in a particular area.

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GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A POPULATION Evolution and selection affect the  genetic  structure of  populations. Heredity laws, new mutations, natural and artificial selection and a number of other phenomena are characterized by exceptional complexity of the reproductive conditions of entire  populations.

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POPULATION AS THE BASIC UNIT OF EVOLUTION According to evolutionary theory, every organism from humans to beetles to plants to bacteria share a common ancestor. Millions of years of evolutionary pressure caused some organisms to died while others survived, leaving earth with the diverse life forms we have today. Within this diversity is unity; for example, all organisms are composed of cells and use DNA. The theory of evolution gives us a unifying theory to explain the similarities and differences within life’s organisms and processes.

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In biology,  evolution  is the change in the characteristics of a species over several generations and relies on the process of natural selection. The theory of  evolution  is based on the idea that all species ?  are related and gradually change over time.

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Population and Evolutionary Genetics - The theory of evolution gives us a unifying theory to explain the similarities and differences within life’s organisms and processes. Populations (or gene pools ) evolve as gene frequencies change; individual organisms cannot evolve. Variation in populations is determined by the genes present in the population’s gene pool, which may be directly altered by mutation. Natural selection is the gradual process that increases the frequency of advantageous inherited traits (allowing it to survive and reproduce) and decreases the frequency of detrimental inherited traits within a population. A population’s genetic makeup can also be affected by random chance events like genetic drift, or when genes are inherited together in genetic hitchhiking.

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In population genetics, the Hardy–Weinberg principle, also known as the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, model, theorem, or law, states that allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation in the absence of other evolutionary influences. HARDY-WEINBERG PRINCIPLE

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Population size and the rate of evolution Does evolution proceed faster in larger or smaller populations? The relationship between effective population size (Ne) and the rate of evolution has consequences for our ability to understand and interpret genomic variation, and is central to many aspects of evolution and ecology. Many factors affect the relationship between Ne and the rate of evolution, and recent theoretical and empirical studies have shown some surprising and sometimes counterintuitive results. Some mechanisms tend to make the relationship positive, others negative, and they can act simultaneously. The relationship also depends on whether one is interested in the rate of neutral, adaptive, or deleterious evolution. Here, we synthesize theoretical and empirical approaches to understand ding the relationship and highlight areas that remain poorly understood. Does population size limit evolution? Do small populations evolve faster or slower than large populations? When and why does population size limit adaptation? Answering these questions is important for understanding present-day diversity and the evolutionary past and future of life on Earth [

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Environmental change and isolation of groups of organisms play an important role in evolution.... Isolation means that organisms of the same species are separated, and happens when there is something between the organisms that they can't cross. Organisms become isolated as a result of environmental change. isolation in evolution

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FACTORS AFFECTING HARDY WEINBERG LAW

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GENETIC DRIFT

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In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or allele flow) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another. If the rate of gene flow is high enough, then two populations are considered to have equivalent allele frequencies and therefore effectively be a single population. Gene flow in evolution

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