Презентация на тему: Lecture 2

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Lecture 2
Matter, Energy and Environment
Outline
Lecture 2
Lecture 2
Biotic Components
Principles of Matter & Energy
The Structure of Matter
Atomic Structure
Atoms, Molecules, & Compounds
Water – Unique substance
Acids, Bases, and pH
Acids, Bases, and pH
Inorganic and Organic Matter
DNA: primary, secondary & ternary structure
Chemical Reactions in Living Things
Photosynthesis
Chemical Reactions in Living Things
Respiration
Energy Principles
States of Matter
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Properties of Energy
Lecture 2
Food Chains
Cross-connected Food Chains
Lecture 2
Path of Energy Flow
Lecture 2
Energy Pyramid
Breaking Food Chains
Water Cycle
Carbon Cycle
Nitrogen Cycle
Summary
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Первый слайд презентации: Lecture 2

1 GEN1030 Introduction to Environmental Studies Lecture 2 Chapter 2. Matter, Energy, and Environment Aliya Nurtaeva, Ph.D. KIMEP University Dept of General Education Office # 507/ Valikhanov anurtaeva@kimep.kz

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Слайд 2: Matter, Energy and Environment

2 Matter, Energy and Environment

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Слайд 3: Outline

3 Outline Principles of Matter & Energy Structure of Matter Energy Principles Energy Flows Energy, Matter & the Environment Biochemical Cycles

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Слайд 4

4 Biological Levels of the Environment Ecosystem – biological community along with its physical environment They interact in an exchange of matter and energy. Species – a certain type of organisms that can interbreed and produce offspring Population – group of individuals of the same species living in a given area Community – interacting groups of different species living in a certain area Biosphere – layer of Earth containing all living organisms bahaba Biome – areas with similar topography, climate, species

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Слайд 5

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Слайд 6: Biotic Components

6 Biotic Components Abiotic Components: Energy & Matter

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Слайд 7: Principles of Matter & Energy

7 Principles of Matter & Energy To understand how ecosystems function, it is important to know: how energy and matter behave - in the universe and in living things. 2) basic building blocks of life, starting with cells & organisms, and proceeding to communities and populations.

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Слайд 8: The Structure of Matter

8 The Structure of Matter Matter and energy are essential constituents of both the universe and living organisms. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Energy - the capacity to do work Matter is made of atoms, molecules, and compounds

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Слайд 9: Atomic Structure

9 Atomic Structure Atom - fundamental unit of matter. 92 types of atoms found in nature, with each being composed of: Protons (‘+’ charge) Neutrons (neutral: ‘0’ charge ) Electrons (‘-’ charge) Each kind of atom forms a specific type of matter known as an element.

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Слайд 10: Atoms, Molecules, & Compounds

10 Atoms, Molecules, & Compounds Atom - the smallest particle of matter still remaining the elemental properties of matter Molecule – a combination of two or more atoms Compound – a molecule made up of 2 or more kinds of atoms ( elements ) held together by chemical bonds Isotopes - atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain. Isotopes have the same number of protons & electrons, but different number of neutrons.

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Слайд 11: Water – Unique substance

11 Water – Unique substance ~70% of the weight of living organisms Medium in which life's chemical reactions occur Liquid over a wide temperature range Highest surface tension Expands when it crystallizes, unlike most substances High heat of vaporization (latent heat) High specific heat Water solutions of salts, acids – electrical conductors

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Слайд 12: Acids, Bases, and pH

12 Acids, Bases, and pH Acid - a compound that releases hydrogen ions in water solution. Base - a compound that accepts hydrogen ions in water solution. pH indicator shows acidity or hydrogen ion concentration. The scale is inverse and logarithmic pH = 7: neutral 0 < pH < 7: acidic (more H + than OH - ) 7 < pH < 14 : basic (less H + than OH - )

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Слайд 13: Acids, Bases, and pH

13 Acids, Bases, and pH pH scale

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Слайд 14: Inorganic and Organic Matter

14 Inorganic and Organic Matter Organic matter consists of molecules containing carbon atoms that are bonded to form chains or rings. All living things contain molecules of organic compounds. Chemical bonds in organic molecules contain a large amount of chemical energy that can be released when the bonds are broken. Essential Elements of Life: • carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen • make up 96% of living matter

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Слайд 15: DNA: primary, secondary & ternary structure

15 DNA: primary, secondary & ternary structure

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Слайд 16: Chemical Reactions in Living Things

16 Chemical Reactions in Living Things Photosynthesis is a process used by plants to convert inorganic material into organic material using light. Carbon dioxide + water (in the presence of sunlight) produces glucose + oxygen. 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + E (sunlight)  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Enzymes contained in living organisms act as biocatalysts speeding up chemical reactions.

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Слайд 17: Photosynthesis

17 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis

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Слайд 18: Chemical Reactions in Living Things

18 Chemical Reactions in Living Things Respiration is the process that uses oxygen to break down large, organic molecules into smaller inorganic molecules (releases energy organisms can use). Glucose + oxygen produces carbon dioxide + water + energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + E

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Слайд 19: Respiration

19 Respiration

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Слайд 20: Energy Principles

20 Energy Principles Energy is the ability to perform work. Kinetic energy is the energy contained by moving objects. Potential energy is energy due to relative position (latent, available for use).

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Слайд 21: States of Matter

21 States of Matter Matter exists in 3 interchangeable states: solid, liquid, or gas. The state of matter depends on the amount of energy present. The amount of kinetic energy contained in a molecule determines how rapidly it moves. Solids: Molecular particles have low energy and vibrate in place very close to one another. Liquids: More energy; molecules are farther apart from one another. Gases: Molecular particles move very rapidly and are very far apart.

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Слайд 22: Electromagnetic Spectrum

22 The wavelengths of visible light drive photosynthesis. Electromagnetic Spectrum

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Слайд 23: Properties of Energy

23 Properties of Energy Most energy used in ecosystems originates as solar energy. Green plants convert energy to chemical energy, which is then converted to heat or kinetic energy by the animal that eats the plant. Energy cannot be recycled. Energy is reused, but it is constantly degraded or lost from the system.

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Слайд 24

24 Organism (species) Population Biological Community Ecosystem Biosphere See also slide #4 Energy & Matter in the Environment

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Слайд 25: Food Chains

25 Food Chains Food chain - The sequence of organisms each of them being eaten by the next one in the chain E & matter are transferred through food chain from one trophic level to another

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Слайд 26: Cross-connected Food Chains

26 Cross-connected Food Chains Food web A complex, interlocking series of indi­vidual food chains in an ecosystem.

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Слайд 27

27 Food Web - a complex, interlocking series of individual food chains

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Слайд 28: Path of Energy Flow

28 Path of Energy Flow Food Chains – Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores eat both plants & animals. Detritivores

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Слайд 29

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Слайд 30: Energy Pyramid

30 Most energy in most ecosystems is stored in the bodies of primary producers. Only ~10% of the energy at one energy level passes to the next highest trophic level. Energy Pyramid ADD FIG. 2.18

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Слайд 31: Breaking Food Chains

31 Breaking Food Chains How Humans Can Affect the Food Chain Mouse  Coyote  Mountain Lion Deer  What would happen if you eliminate mouse? coyote? lion?

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Слайд 32: Water Cycle

32 Water Cycle

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Слайд 33: Carbon Cycle

33 Carbon Cycle

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Слайд 34: Nitrogen Cycle

34 Nitrogen Cycle

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Последний слайд презентации: Lecture 2: Summary

35 Summary Biological levels of the Environment Energy & Matter: basic principles. 3 states of matter: solid, liquid and gas Kinetic and Potential energy. 4 trophic leveles: producers, herbivores, carnivores, top carnivores. Omnivores, detritivores, decomposers. Only 10% of energy is being transferred from one trophic level to the next one.

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