Первый слайд презентации: Lecture 2
1 GEN1030 Introduction to Environmental Studies Lecture 2 Chapter 2. Matter, Energy, and Environment Aliya Nurtaeva, Ph.D. KIMEP University Dept of General Education Office # 507/ Valikhanov email@example.com
Слайд 2: Matter, Energy and Environment
2 Matter, Energy and Environment
Слайд 3: Outline
3 Outline Principles of Matter & Energy Structure of Matter Energy Principles Energy Flows Energy, Matter & the Environment Biochemical Cycles
4 Biological Levels of the Environment Ecosystem – biological community along with its physical environment They interact in an exchange of matter and energy. Species – a certain type of organisms that can interbreed and produce offspring Population – group of individuals of the same species living in a given area Community – interacting groups of different species living in a certain area Biosphere – layer of Earth containing all living organisms bahaba Biome – areas with similar topography, climate, species
Слайд 6: Biotic Components
6 Biotic Components Abiotic Components: Energy & Matter
Слайд 7: Principles of Matter & Energy
7 Principles of Matter & Energy To understand how ecosystems function, it is important to know: how energy and matter behave - in the universe and in living things. 2) basic building blocks of life, starting with cells & organisms, and proceeding to communities and populations.
Слайд 8: The Structure of Matter
8 The Structure of Matter Matter and energy are essential constituents of both the universe and living organisms. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Energy - the capacity to do work Matter is made of atoms, molecules, and compounds
Слайд 9: Atomic Structure
9 Atomic Structure Atom - fundamental unit of matter. 92 types of atoms found in nature, with each being composed of: Protons (‘+’ charge) Neutrons (neutral: ‘0’ charge ) Electrons (‘-’ charge) Each kind of atom forms a specific type of matter known as an element.
Слайд 10: Atoms, Molecules, & Compounds
10 Atoms, Molecules, & Compounds Atom - the smallest particle of matter still remaining the elemental properties of matter Molecule – a combination of two or more atoms Compound – a molecule made up of 2 or more kinds of atoms ( elements ) held together by chemical bonds Isotopes - atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain. Isotopes have the same number of protons & electrons, but different number of neutrons.
Слайд 11: Water – Unique substance
11 Water – Unique substance ~70% of the weight of living organisms Medium in which life's chemical reactions occur Liquid over a wide temperature range Highest surface tension Expands when it crystallizes, unlike most substances High heat of vaporization (latent heat) High specific heat Water solutions of salts, acids – electrical conductors
Слайд 12: Acids, Bases, and pH
12 Acids, Bases, and pH Acid - a compound that releases hydrogen ions in water solution. Base - a compound that accepts hydrogen ions in water solution. pH indicator shows acidity or hydrogen ion concentration. The scale is inverse and logarithmic pH = 7: neutral 0 < pH < 7: acidic (more H + than OH - ) 7 < pH < 14 : basic (less H + than OH - )
Слайд 13: Acids, Bases, and pH
13 Acids, Bases, and pH pH scale
Слайд 14: Inorganic and Organic Matter
14 Inorganic and Organic Matter Organic matter consists of molecules containing carbon atoms that are bonded to form chains or rings. All living things contain molecules of organic compounds. Chemical bonds in organic molecules contain a large amount of chemical energy that can be released when the bonds are broken. Essential Elements of Life: • carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen • make up 96% of living matter
Слайд 15: DNA: primary, secondary & ternary structure
15 DNA: primary, secondary & ternary structure
Слайд 16: Chemical Reactions in Living Things
16 Chemical Reactions in Living Things Photosynthesis is a process used by plants to convert inorganic material into organic material using light. Carbon dioxide + water (in the presence of sunlight) produces glucose + oxygen. 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + E (sunlight) C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Enzymes contained in living organisms act as biocatalysts speeding up chemical reactions.
Слайд 17: Photosynthesis
17 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis
Слайд 18: Chemical Reactions in Living Things
18 Chemical Reactions in Living Things Respiration is the process that uses oxygen to break down large, organic molecules into smaller inorganic molecules (releases energy organisms can use). Glucose + oxygen produces carbon dioxide + water + energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + E
Слайд 20: Energy Principles
20 Energy Principles Energy is the ability to perform work. Kinetic energy is the energy contained by moving objects. Potential energy is energy due to relative position (latent, available for use).
Слайд 21: States of Matter
21 States of Matter Matter exists in 3 interchangeable states: solid, liquid, or gas. The state of matter depends on the amount of energy present. The amount of kinetic energy contained in a molecule determines how rapidly it moves. Solids: Molecular particles have low energy and vibrate in place very close to one another. Liquids: More energy; molecules are farther apart from one another. Gases: Molecular particles move very rapidly and are very far apart.
Слайд 22: Electromagnetic Spectrum
22 The wavelengths of visible light drive photosynthesis. Electromagnetic Spectrum
Слайд 23: Properties of Energy
23 Properties of Energy Most energy used in ecosystems originates as solar energy. Green plants convert energy to chemical energy, which is then converted to heat or kinetic energy by the animal that eats the plant. Energy cannot be recycled. Energy is reused, but it is constantly degraded or lost from the system.
24 Organism (species) Population Biological Community Ecosystem Biosphere See also slide #4 Energy & Matter in the Environment
Слайд 25: Food Chains
25 Food Chains Food chain - The sequence of organisms each of them being eaten by the next one in the chain E & matter are transferred through food chain from one trophic level to another
Слайд 26: Cross-connected Food Chains
26 Cross-connected Food Chains Food web A complex, interlocking series of individual food chains in an ecosystem.
27 Food Web - a complex, interlocking series of individual food chains
Слайд 28: Path of Energy Flow
28 Path of Energy Flow Food Chains – Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores eat both plants & animals. Detritivores
Слайд 30: Energy Pyramid
30 Most energy in most ecosystems is stored in the bodies of primary producers. Only ~10% of the energy at one energy level passes to the next highest trophic level. Energy Pyramid ADD FIG. 2.18
Слайд 31: Breaking Food Chains
31 Breaking Food Chains How Humans Can Affect the Food Chain Mouse Coyote Mountain Lion Deer What would happen if you eliminate mouse? coyote? lion?
Слайд 34: Nitrogen Cycle
34 Nitrogen Cycle
Последний слайд презентации: Lecture 2: Summary
35 Summary Biological levels of the Environment Energy & Matter: basic principles. 3 states of matter: solid, liquid and gas Kinetic and Potential energy. 4 trophic leveles: producers, herbivores, carnivores, top carnivores. Omnivores, detritivores, decomposers. Only 10% of energy is being transferred from one trophic level to the next one.