Первый слайд презентации: Karaganda state medical university
Department of Foreign Languages Student Individual Work Theme: Geography of UK and Northern Irelands. Geography of USA Prepared by: Kadyr D. Group:110 Checked by: Kenzhebekova R.S. Karaganda 2010
United Kingdom Official Name: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, or UK, is a sovereign state located off the northwestern coast of continental Europe. It comprises the island of Great Britain ( England, Scotland and Wales ) and the northeastern one-sixth of the island of Ireland ( Northern Ireland ), together with many smaller islands. The mainland areas lie between latitudes 49°N and 59°N (the Shetland Islands reach to nearly 61°N), and longitudes 8°W to 2°E. The Royal Greenwich Observatory, in South East London, is the defining point of the Prime Meridian. The UK lies between the North Atlantic and the North Sea, and comes within 35 km (22 mi) of the northwest coast of France, from which it is separated by the English Channel. Northern Ireland shares a 360 km international land boundary with the Republic of Ireland. The Channel Tunnel bored beneath the English Channel, now links the UK with France.
PROFILE Geography Area: United Kingdom 243,820 km² (94,600 sq mi) comprising of the island of Great Britain, the northeastern one-sixth of the island of Ireland (Northern Ireland) and smaller islands. England is the largest country of the United Kingdom, at 130,410 square kilometres (50,350 sq mi) accounting for just over half the total area of the UK. Scotland at 78,772 square kilometres (30,410 sq mi),  is second largest, accounting for about a third of the area of the UK. Wales and Northern Ireland are much smaller, covering 20,758 square kilometres (8,010 sq mi) and 14,160 square kilometres (5,470 sq mi) respectively
Cities: Capital --London (metropolitan pop. about 7.56 million). Other cities --Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds, Sheffield, Liverpool, Bradford, Manchester, Edinburgh, Bristol, Belfast. Terrain: 30% arable, 50% meadow and pasture, 12% waste or urban, 7% forested, 1% inland water. Land use: 25% arable, 46% meadows and pastures, 10% forests and woodland, 19% other. Climate: Generally mild and temperate; weather is subject to frequent changes but to few extremes of temperature.
The area of the countries of the United Kingdom is set out in the table below. Information about the area of England, the largest country, is also broken down by region. Rank Name Area 1 England 130,427 km² - South West - 23,837 km² East of England - 19,120 km² South East - 19,096 km² East Midlands - 15,627 km² Yorkshire and the Humber - 15,420 km² North West - 14,165 km² West Midlands - 12,998 km² North East 8,592 km² London - 1,572 km² 2 Scotland  78,772 km² 3 Wales  20,778 km² 4 Northern Ireland 13,843 km² United Kingdom 243,820 km²
People Nationality: Noun --Briton(s). Adjective --British. Population (2010 est.): 62.2 million. Annual population growth rate (2010 est.): 0.7%. Major ethnic groups: British, Irish, West Indian, South Asian. Major religions: Church of England (Anglican), Roman Catholic, Church of Scotland (Presbyterian), Muslim. Major languages: English, Welsh, Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic. Education: Years compulsory --12. Attendance --nearly 100%. Literacy --99%. Health: Infant mortality rate (2009 est.)--4.85/1,000. Life expectancy (2009 est.)--males 76.5 yrs.; females 81.6 yrs.; total 79.0 years. Work force (2009, 31.25 million): Services --80.4%; industry --18.2%; agriculture --1.4%.
Government Type: Constitutional monarchy. Constitution: Unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice. Branches: Executive --monarch (head of state), prime minister (head of government), cabinet. Legislative --bicameral Parliament: House of Commons, House of Lords; Scottish Parliament, Welsh Assembly, and Northern Ireland Assembly. Judicial --magistrates' courts, county courts, high courts, appellate courts, House of Lords, Supreme Court. Subdivisions: Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland (municipalities, counties, and parliamentary constituencies). Political parties: Conservative, Labour, Liberal Democrats, UK Independence Party, British National Party, Green Party; also, in Scotland--Scottish National Party. Wales--Plaid Cymru (Party of Wales). Northern Ireland--Ulster Unionist Party, Social Democratic and Labour Party, Democratic Unionist Party, Sinn Fein, Alliance Party, Progressive Unionist Party. Suffrage: British subjects and citizens of other Commonwealth countries and the Irish Republic resident in the U.K., at 18.
Economy GDP (at current market prices, 2009): $2.184 trillion. Annual growth rate (2009): -4.8%. Per capita GDP (at current market prices, 2009): $35,334. Natural resources: Coal, oil, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica. Agriculture (1.2% of GDP): Products --cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables, cattle, sheep, poultry, fish. Industry: Types --steel, heavy engineering and metal manufacturing, textiles, motor vehicles and aircraft, construction (23.8% of GDP), electronics, chemicals. Services (75% of GDP): Types --financial, business, distribution, transport, communication, hotels. Trade (2009): Exports of goods and services --$351.3 billion: manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco. Major markets --U.S., European Union. Imports of goods and services --$473.6 billion: manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, foodstuffs. Major suppliers --U.S., European Union, and China.
Mountains and hills:- Mountains of the United Kingdom The ten tallest mountains in the UK are all found in Scotland. The highest peaks in each part of the UK are: Scotland: Ben Nevis ( Aonach Mòr, 1,344 metres) Wales: Snowdon ( Snowdonia, 1,085 metres) England: Scafell Pike ( Cumbrian Mountains, 977 metres) Northern Ireland: Slieve Donard ( Mourne Mountains, 852 metres) The ranges of mountains and hills in the UK include: Scotland: Cairngorms, Cheviot Hills, Scottish Highlands, Southern Uplands, Grampian Mountains Wales: Brecon Beacons, Cambrian Mountains, Snowdonia, Black Mountains, Preseli Hills England: Chilterns, Cotswolds, Dartmoor, Lincolnshire Wolds, Exmoor, Lake District, Malvern Hills, Mendip Hills, North Downs, Peak District, Pennines, Salisbury Plain, South Downs, Shropshire Hills, Yorkshire Wolds Northern Ireland: Mourne Mountains, Antrim Plateau, Sperrin Mountains The lowest point of the UK is in the Fens of East Anglia, in England, parts of which lie up to 4 metres below sea level.
Rivers and lakes Main articles List of lakes in the United Kingdom ; Rivers of the United Kingdom ; Waterfalls of the United Kingdom. The longest river in the UK is the River Severn (220 mi, 354 km) which flows through both Wales and England. The longest rivers in the UK by country are: England: River Thames (215 mi, 346 km) Scotland: River Tay (117 mi, 188 km) N. Ireland: River Bann (76 mi, 122 km) Wales: River Tywi (64 mi, 103 km) The largest lakes in the UK by country are: N. Ireland: Lough Neagh (147.39 sq mi, 381.74 km²) Scotland: Loch Lomond (27.46 sq mi, 71.12 km²) England: Windermere (5.69 sq mi, 14.74 km²) Wales: Llyn Tegid (Bala Lake) (1.87 sq mi, 4.84 km²) The deepest lake in the UK is Loch Morar with a maximum depth of 309 metres ( Loch Ness is second at 228 metres deep). The deepest lake in England is Wastwater which descends to 79 metres (258 feet ).
Artificial waterways Waterways in the United Kingdom, Canals of Great Britain, Reservoirs and dams in the United Kingdom As a result of its industrial history, the United Kingdom has an extensive system of canals, mostly built in the early years of the Industrial Revolution, before the rise of competition from the railways. The United Kingdom also has numerous dams and reservoirs to store water for drinking and industry. The generation of hydroelectric power is rather limited, supplying less than 2% of British electricity mainly from the Scottish Highlands.
Natural resources Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanised, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the labour force. It contributes around 2% of GDP. Around two thirds of production is devoted to livestock, one third to arable crops. In 1993, it was estimated that land use was: Arable land : 25 % Permanent crops : 0 % Permanent pastures : 46 % Forests and Woodland : 10 % Other: 19 % Irrigated : 1,080 km² The UK has a variety of natural resources including: Geological: coal, petroleum, natural gas, limestone, chalk, gypsum, silica, rock salt, china clay, iron ore, tin, silver, gold, lead. Agricultural: arable land, wheat, barley, sheep The UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves; primary energy production accounts for 10% of GDP, one of the highest shares of any industrial nation. Due to the island location of the UK, the country has great potential for generating electricity from wave power and tidal power, although these have not yet been exploited on a commercial basis.
The United States is a country in the Western Hemisphere. It consists of forty-eight contiguous states in North America, Alaska, a peninsula which forms the northwestern most part of North America, and Hawaii, an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. There are several United States territories in the Pacific and Caribbean. The term "United States", when used in the geographical sense, means the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands of the United States.  The country shares land borders with Canada and Mexico and maritime (water) borders with Russia, Cuba, and The Bahamas.
Area:- From 1989 through 1996, the total area of the US was listed as 9,372,610 km 2 (3,618,780 sq mi) (land + inland water only). The listed total area changed to 9,629,091 km 2 (3,717,813 sq mi) in 1997 (Great Lakes area and coastal waters added), to 9,631,418 km 2 (3,718,711 sq mi) in 2004, to 9,631,420 km 2 (3,718,710 sq mi) in 2006, and to 9,826,630 km 2 (3,794,080 sq mi) in 2007 (territorial waters added). Currently, the CIA World Factbook gives 9,826,675 km 2 (3,794,100 sq mi), the United Nations Statistics Division gives 9,629,091 km 2 (3,717,813 sq mi), and the Encyclopædia Britannica gives 9,522,055 km 2 (3,676,486 sq mi).
Слайд 21: Landforms
The U.S. and Canada have several major mountain ranges: The Rocky Mountains The Appalachian Mountains Pacific Coastal Ranges
Слайд 22: The Rocky Mountains
The Rocky Mountains extend about 3,000 miles from Alaska south to New Mexico. They are younger and taller than the Appalachian Mountains. The Continental Divide is the line of highest points in the Rockies that marks the separation of rivers flowing eastward and westward.
Слайд 24: The Appalachian Mountains
The Appalachian Mountains extend about 1,600 miles north to south from Newfoundland in Canada to Alabama.
Слайд 25: Pacific Coastal Ranges
A series of small mountain ranges stretch from southern California to Washington. These ranges are low in elevation and right on the coast. They make the coastline rugged and steep. This area is also on the Ring of Fire and has many active and dormant volcanoes. Earthquakes are common in this area.
Слайд 27: Other Landforms
The Canadian Shield Interior Lowlands Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains Basin and Range Great Plains Grand Canyon
Слайд 28: Canadian Shield
The Canadian Shield is a rocky, mainly flat area around Hudson Bay.
Слайд 30: Interior Lowlands
An area that spreads from the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River. This area is mostly flat with rolling hills.
Слайд 31: Arctic and Gulf Coastal Plains
These are flat areas that stretch along the Gulf of Mexico in the south and the Arctic Ocean in the north. The Arctic Coastal Plain is tundra.
Слайд 32: Basin and Range
This area is mostly in Nevada and it consists of rocky outcroppings of rock and large depressions.
Слайд 34: Great Plains
A largely treeless flat area that extends from Canada down to Mexico. The soil is very fertile and good for farming but the climate can be harsh with cold winters and hot summers. This area also gets many tornadoes.
Слайд 36: Grand Canyon
The Grand Canyon was formed by water erosion from the Colorado River. The canyon is 277 miles long and ranges in width from 4 to 18 miles. Most of the canyon is in Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona. See the Grand Canyon skywalk at youtube!
Слайд 38: Groups of Islands
Hawaiian archipelago - A group of 19 islands and islets in the Pacific Ocean that formed over a hotspot in the earth’s crust. The largest island, Hawaii, has an active volcano. Aleutian Islands - A chain of over 300 small volcanic islands that extend from Alaska to Russia.
Слайд 41: Rivers
Some major rivers in the United States are: Mississippi St. Lawrence Colorado Columbia Rio Grande
Слайд 42: Mississippi River
The Mississippi River is the second longest river in the United States with a length of 2,340 miles. The river is an important transportation route from the grain producing states of middle America to the Gulf of Mexico.
Слайд 44: St. Lawrence River
The St. Lawrence River connects the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. The river has a system of locks that allow large ships to transport loads of minerals and goods. Part of the river serves as the boarder between Canada and the United States.
Слайд 48: Colorado River
The Colorado River flows from Colorado to the Gulf of California. The river formed the Grand Canyon by erosion and it is an important source of fresh water in an arid region. The Hoover Dam on the river provides electricity for Los Angeles.
Слайд 52: Other Water Features
Some other important water features are: Gulf of Mexico Great Lakes Arctic Ocean Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Hudson Bay
Слайд 53: Climate
Canada and the United States are in the middle and high latitudes. The most common climates are: Humid Subtropical and Continental Semiarid and Arid Marine West Coast and Mediterranean Tundra and Icecap
Слайд 54: Climate
Most of the Eastern United States is humid subtropical. This climate zone has a mild winter and hot humid summers. The Northern states are humid continental. They have much colder winters but the summers can still be hot and uncomfortable.
The tundra is a flat treeless plain with lichens, shrubs, and some flowers.