Слайд 2: PLAN
1. What is sociology ? 2. Subject and object of sociology. 3. The development of s ociology. 4.Comparing t heoretical perspectives of sociology
Слайд 3: Literature
1. Encyclopedia of Sociology (2nd ed.). Edgar F. Borgatta, editor-in-chief, Marie L. Borgatta, managing editor. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2000. 2. Encyclopedia of Social Problems. Ed. by Vincent N. Parrillor. Thousand Oaks, Calif. : SAGE Publications, Inc., 2008. 3. World of Sociology. Ed. by Joseph M. Palmisano. Detroit : Gale Group, 2001. 4. Reader's Guide to the Social Sciences. Ed. by Jonathan Michie. Chicago : Fitzroy Dearborn, 2001. 5. Dictionary of the Social Sciences. Ed. by Craig Calhoun. New York : Oxford University Press, 2002.
Слайд 4: What is sociology?
The term “sociology” was coined by Auguste Comte (1798–1857), a French philosopher, in 1838. Sociology is derived from both Latin and Greek origins “ socius ” meaning companion, society and the Greek word “ logos ” meaning study or science The meaning of sociology is the science of society Formal academic sociology was established by Émile Durkheim (1858–1917), who developed positivism as a foundation to practical social research.
Слайд 5: What is sociology?
Sociology has been defined in a number of ways by different sociologists. No single definition has yet been accepted as completely satisfactory. For our purpose of study a few definitions may be cited here. Auguste Comte defines sociology as “the science of social phenomena subject to natural and invariable laws, the discovery of which is the object of investigation". Kingsley Davis : "Sociology is a general science of society". Harry M. Johnson: “Sociology is the science that deals with social groups". Emile Durkheim : "Science of social institutions, their genesis and their functioning "
Слайд 6: What is sociology ?
Sociology is the scientific study of human society and social interactions. The social science discipline that looks at the development and structure of human society and how it works (transitions in society, challenge and change) Sociology is the study of social life, social change, and the social causes and consequences of human behavior. (American Sociological Association)
Слайд 7: Sociology and Common Sense
Common sense assumptions are usually based on very limited observation. Moreover, the premises on which common sense assumptions are seldom examined. Sociology seeks to: use a broad range of carefully selected observations; and theoretically understand and explain those observations. While sociological research might confirm common sense observation, its broader base and theoretical rational provide a stronger basis for conclusions.
Слайд 8: Sociology and Science
The Scientific Method Sociology and Science Science is “...a body of systematically arranged knowledge that shows the operation of general laws.” As a science, sociology uses scientific methods Formulate hypotheses Choose research design Gather Data Analyze Data Review of literature
Слайд 9: Sociology and the Social Sciences
Psychology Cultural Anthropology Economics History Political Science Social Work
Слайд 10: Comparison of the disciplines
Anthropology The development of the human species and human cultures throughout the world. Living with the cultural group for extended periods; observing rituals and group behaviours Psychology Individual behaviour, to discover the underlying triggers or causes of human behaviour. Studying people's feelings, thoughts, and personality development through interviews to determine past influential experiences; conducting animal experiments, believing these will lead to a greater understanding of the human mind
Слайд 11: Comparison of the disciplines
Sociology How people act in group situations; the development and structure of human society and how it works. Conducting statistical analysis and observation
Слайд 12: Sociology subject matter
Sociologists investigate the structure of groups, organizations, and societies, and how people interact within these contexts. All human behavior is social so the subject matter of sociology ranges from the intimate family to the hostile mob; from organized crime to religious cults; from the divisions of race, gender and social class to the shared beliefs of a common culture; and from the sociology of work to the sociology of sports. (ASA)
Слайд 13: The roles we play
We all play certain roles in our society – Social Scientists refer to this as status Status is the term used to describe our position within an institution eg. The Yorkland School – There are many positions at Yorkland ranging from teacher, vice-principal, guidance counselor, principal, student and administrator – Can you put them in order on the hierarchy? Hierarchy is the ranking system used in any particular environment based on authority or power Each position or role requires a certain type of expertise which is valued by society In order to distinguish between these roles people are expected to dress and act in a certain way On any given day we can play many different roles in society – eg. A parent can drive their kids to school and then go to work and teach their students
Слайд 14: Rules, norms and values
Values – Society carries with it a system of values. A particular set of values are assigned to each role. The practitioners of these roles are expected to accept and internalize these values. Norms – These are rules set out for a particular role that are considered standard behaviour ( eg. Catholic Priests are expected to be celibate) Rules – These are developed by cultures based on their system of values Deviance – Any behaviour that is different from the societal norm. It is deviant because we, as a society, do not accept it
Слайд 15: The Development of Sociology
Sociology emerged as a separate discipline in the nineteenth century This was a time of great social upheaval due largely to the French and Industrial Revolutions Durkheim set up the first European department of sociology at the University of Bordeaux in 1895, publishing his Rules of the Sociological Method (1895). Several early sociologists shaped the direction of the discipline
Слайд 16: Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
Responsible for coining the term “sociology” Set out to develop the “science of man” that would be based on empirical observation Focused on two aspects of society: Social Statics— forces which produce order and stability Social Dynamics— forces which contribute to social change
Слайд 17: Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)
Authored one of the earliest analyses of culture and life in the United States entitled Theory and Practice of Society in America Translated Comte’s Positive Philosophy into English Harriet Martineau
Слайд 18: Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
Authored the first sociology text, Principles of Sociology Most well known for proposing a doctrine called “Social Darwinism” Suggested that people who could not compete were poorly adapted to the environment and inferior This is an idea commonly called survival of the fittest
Слайд 19: Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Marx is the father of conflict theory Saw human history in a continual state of conflict between two major classes: Bourgeoisie— owners of the means of production (capitalists) Proletariat— the workers Predicted that revolution would occur producing first a socialist state, followed by a communist society
Слайд 20: Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
Durkheim moved sociology fully into the realm of an empirical science Most well known empirical study is called Suicide, where he looks at the social causes of suicide Generally regarded as the founder of functionalist theory Emile Durkheim
Слайд 21: Max Weber (1864-1920)
Much of Weber’s work was a critique or clarification of Marx His most famous work, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism directly challenged Marx’s ideas on the role of religion in society Weber was also interested in bureaucracies and the process of rationalization in society
Слайд 22: Theoretical Perspectives: Functionalism
Functionalism sees society as a system of highly interrelated parts that work together harmoniously The image that functionalists use to understand society is a living organism Each part of society works together for the benefit of the whole much like a living organism
Слайд 23: Theoretical Perspectives: Conflict Theory
Conflict theory is grounded in the work of Karl Marx Society is understood to be made up of conflicting interest groups who vie for power and privilege This dynamic results in continuous social change, which is the normal state of affairs Conflict theory focuses heavily on inequality and differential distribution of power and wealth
Слайд 24: Theoretical Perspectives: The Interactionist Perspective
Focuses on how individuals make sense of and interpret the world This perspective tends to focus on the “micro-order” of small groups Has given rise to several specific approaches: Symbolic Interactionism developed by George Herbert Mead Ethnomethodology developed by Harold Garfinkel Dramaturgy developed by Erving Goffman
Последний слайд презентации: Introduction to Sociology
Comparing Theoretical Perspectives Perspective Scope of Analysis Point of View Focus of Analysis Structural-Functionalism Macro Level Various parts of society are interdependent Social systems are highly stable Social life governed by consensus & cooperation Functional and dysfunctional aspects of society Conflict Theory Macro Level Society accommodates between competing interest groups Society unstable and prone to change Social life conflict-laden 1. How social inequalities produce conflict 2. Who benefits from social arrangements Interactionist Micro Level Actions have symbolic meanings Meanings can vary How people make sense of their world