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International Flights into Space: Intercosmos Milana Kovalenko From 6V School № 5 Teacher: E.S.Kolesnikova
In July and September in 1976 in Moscow representatives of Bulgaria Hungary East Germany the Republic of Cuba Mongolia Poland Romania Czechoslovakia discussed and approved the new Soviet initiative -" Intercosmos " program. It was agreed that the cosmonauts of all the socialist countries - participants of the " Intercosmos " program would take part in flights to the Soviet spacecraft and orbital stations in conjunction with the Soviet cosmonauts in the period from 1978 to 1983
The international cooperation in five key areas began : - Space physics ; - Space meteorology ; - Space biology and medicine ; - Space communication ; - The study of the Earth's natural resources.
. Alexey Gubarev and Vladimír Remek - Chehoslovakiya F light duration - 7 days 22 hours 16 minutes 00 seconds from 2 to 10 March 1978 During the flight the ship " Soyuz- 28 " docked with the orbital station " Salyut- 6 ". Remek and Gubarev, together with the crew of the station, Yuri Romanenko and Georgi Grechko conducted a number of technological and biomedical experiments. The first international flight from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on the board of the manned spacecraft " Soyuz- 28 " :
Pyotr Klimuk and Miroslav Germashevsky 7 days 22 hours 02 minutes 59 seconds from 27 June to 5 July 1978 Flight program : the program of complex medical examinations, complex circulatory system examination using equipment " polynomial -2M ", " Rheograph - 2 " and " Beta 3 ", made registration rheogram, ECG and other factors, medical experiment " Kardiolider ", conducting an experiment "Earth" to explore the natural resources of our planet. Peter and Miroslav Klimuk Germashevsky conducted medical experiments and experiment "Leisure", the purpose of which was to study human adaptation to the new environment of life.
Valery Bykovsky and Sigmund Jahn - 7 days 20 hours 49 minutes 04 seconds from 26 August to 3 September 1978 Flight Program : experiment, observation and photographing clouds in the Antarctic region, an experiment in " Berolina " space materials ( the ancient name of Berlin ). It was held in the mode of gravitational stabilization of the orbital complex. Valery Bykovsky and Sigmund Jahn conducted an experiment in the field of space biology - " tissue culture ". In this experiment they found out the impact of space flight on the physiology and the structural organization of the mammalian cells. They studied the Earth's natural resources by using multispectral camera MKF- 6M and visual and instrumental studies using handheld cameras ( experiment "Biosphere " ).
Nikolai Rukavishnikov and Georgy Ivanov - 1 day 23 hours 01 minutes 06 seconds from 10 to 12 April 1979 When the distance between devices were less than four kilometers, the astronauts noticed a deviation from the regular convergence mode : the speed of convergence between the spacecraft and the station was higher than estimated, and traffic control system included rendezvous - corrective propulsion system that worked abnormally. Docking was impossible. The docking with the station was canceled because of a failure of the main engine of the ship.
Valery Kubasov and Bertalan Farkas - 7 days 20 hours 45 minutes 44 seconds from 26 May to 3 June 1980 Joint work program " The experiment”, " interferon " and " Study of the distribution of trace contaminants in the atmosphere of the main zones of the station. The experiment “Dose “ included radiation research on the space station for a longer period of time. T he Hungarian astronaut brought some products of Hungarian science and industry to the space station : a miniature dosimeters " Pille " ( " Butterfly " ), interferon drugs that provide viral immunity and a device " Balaton ", designed to identify mental health of an astronaut and to carry out 32 different measurements.
Viktor Gorbatko and Pham Tuan - 7 days 20 hours 42 minutes 00 seconds from 23 to 31 July 1980 For a week of their work on the station the Soviet- Vietnamese crew carried out a major research program. They made six types of maps of observations of the natural environment of Vietnam. Viktor Gorbatko and Pham Tuan grew a sample of pure semiconductor crystals in microgravity and conducted a number of medical and biological experiments.
Yury Romanenko and Arnaldo Tamayo Mendez - 7 days 20 hours 43 minutes 24 seconds from 18 to 26 September 1980 The program of joint activities of Romanenko and A. Tamayo Mendez includes researches in various fields of science. The first scientific experiment for the crew began with the research in the field of space medicine. They studied the circulatory system reaction in the initial period of adaptation in weightlessness. They studied the effects of weightlessness on intracellular processes and a definition of the functional state of the central nervous system in space flight. A significant part of the work of the international crew was devoted to geophysical surveys. They studied the changes of human sensory functions in the acute period of adaptation. The experiment was carried out before the flight, in orbit and after returning to the Earth.
Vladimir Janibekov and Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa - 7 days 20 hours 42 minutes 03 seconds from 22 to 30 March 1981 Joint work program included an experiment " collar " which purpose was to study the development of " motion sickness ". The purpose of " Chatsargana " experiment was to study the influence of the drug made from sea buckthorn on lipid and vitamin metabolism. A medical experiment "Neptune" helped to study in-depth e yes’ ability.
Leonid Popov and Dumitru Prunariu - 7 days 20 hours 41 minutes 52 seconds from 14 to 22 May 1981 The program of joint activities : A medical experiment "Information" studied the influence of specific factors of space flight on human mental activity. An experiment " Nanovesy ", prepared by the Romanian specialists together with Soviet engineers measured the reduction of the thin silicon dioxide film mass by sublimation in a vacuum. In the experiment "Immunity ", developed by Soviet and Romanian specialists, the effects of space flight on the biologically active substances were examined.
On the spacecraft "Soyuz" and orbital station " Salyut- 6 " t here were nine international crews ( the Soviet cosmonauts with citizens of Czechoslovakia, Poland, East Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, Cuba, Mongolia, Romania ). By the end of the fifth flight the Expedition station " Salyut- 6 " had been in the space for three years and eight months. Five major expeditions worked on the station and it was visited by eleven expeditions. The total duration of their flights was 676 days. During the flight of the orbital complex " Salyut- 6 " - "Soyuz" 1000 experiments were performed. The astronauts carried out researches and experiments in many fields of science and technology.
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A list of resources : : http://astronaut.ru/as_interk/as_interk.htm «Техника-молодежи» 1979 №10, с.34-35www.technicamolodezhi.ru Брайан; Hellemans, Александр (2004). История науки и техники: справочник браузера по большим открытиям, изобретениям, и людям, которые сделали их, с рассвета времени к сегодня. Нью-Йорк : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 679 http://ksodr.narod.ru/st014.htm http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/ruwiki/246368 http://www.sovkos.ru/cosmicheskie-apparaty/sputnik-interkosmos.html - Наука и человечество. 1975. Сборник - М.: Знание, 1974. http://istoriirossii.ru/nauka/20-veka/352-programma-interkosmos.html http://www.gctc.ru/print.php?id=235 http://star-799.ucoz.ru/index/interkosmos/0-38 http://knowledge.su/i/interkosmos Полеты по программе « Интеркосмос » Козырев В.И. Никитин С.А. Научно-образовательная статья. 1980 г. с.16 http://aviastory.com.ua/ru/kosmonavtika/56/589-programa-qinterkosmosq