Первый слайд презентации: Igor Vasilievich Kurchatov
Performed by Serdabintsev Maxim AVT-28 Teacher : Yuryev а A.V.
Igor Vasilievich was born in the Urals, in the city of Sim, in the family of a surveyor. Soon his family moved to Simferopol. The family was in poverty. Therefore, Igor simultaneously with studying at the Simferopol gymnasium graduated from an evening vocational school, received the profession of a locksmith and worked at a small mechanical plant in Thyssen.
Слайд 3: Study
Study In September 1920 I.V. Kurchatov entered the Taurida University at the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics. By the summer of 1923, despite hunger and poverty, he graduated from the university ahead of schedule and with great success. After arriving in Petrograd at the Polytechnic Institute.
Слайд 4: Scientific activity
Scientific activity Kurchatov began his scientific activity by studying the properties of dielectrics and from a recently discovered physical phenomenon - ferroelectricity.
One of the first (in 1932) in the USSR began to study the physics of atomic nuclei
Слайд 6: Demagnetization
At the beginning of 1940, the research program outlined by Kurchatov was interrupted, and instead of nuclear physics, he began to develop systems for the demagnetization of warships. The installation created by his employees helped protect warships from German magnetic mines.
Слайд 7: Fulfilled their obligations
Kurchatov and his brother Boris built a uranium-graphite boiler in their Laboratory No. 2, where they received the first weighted portions of plutonium. On August 29, 1949, physicists, the creators of the bomb, saw a blinding light and a mushroom-shaped cloud leaving for the stratosphere, breathed a sigh of relief. They fulfilled their obligations.
Слайд 8: August 29, 1949
August 29 is International Day against Nuclear Tests. For the first test of the Soviet atomic bomb in 1949, the American design was chosen, although the original Soviet was already ready. The reason for this decision was as follows. It was already known about the successful application of the American scheme, and the Soviet one had not yet been worked out. It was impossible to make mistakes. Leading the project, L. Beria has repeatedly threatened scientists that, if unsuccessful, he will "wipe them into camp dust." Not without reason, when the first test of the Soviet atomic bomb was successfully carried out, L. Beria, who was present at it, hugged and kissed I.V. Kurchatova and pointedly said at the same time: "It would be a great misfortune if it did not work out."
Слайд 9: H-bomb
Almost four years later, on the morning of August 12, 1953, before the sunrise, an explosion rang out over the landfill. The successful test of the world's first hydrogen bomb has passed. Already during the first tests of the hydrogen bomb, I.V. Kurchatov was horrified by the destruction she had inflicted and seriously thought about banning nuclear weapons: “it was such a terrible, monstrous sight! We must not allow these weapons to be used.”
Слайд 10: February 1960
In February 1960, Kurchatov arrived at the Barvikha sanatorium to visit his friend Academician Yu. B. Khariton. Crouching on the bench, they spoke, a pause arose, and when Khariton looked at Kurchatov, he was already dead. Death occurred due to a heart embolism with a blood clot. Kurchatov’s favorite word was “I understand.” It was he who became the last in his mouth.
Слайд 11: Merits
Europe's first nuclear reactor (1946); created the first Soviet atomic bomb (1949);
Слайд 12: Awards
Awards Four times laureate of the Stalin Prize (1942, 1949, 1951, 1954) laureate of the Lenin Prize (1957). Three times Hero of Socialist Labor (1949, 1951, 1954). He was awarded five Orders of Lenin and two Orders of the Red Banner of Labor, medals "For Victory over Germany", "For the Defense of Sevastopol" and was awarded the Great Gold Medal to them. M.V. Lomonosov, Gold Medal. L. Euler of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Silver Medal of the World named after Joliot-Curie. Winner of the Diploma of Honorary Citizen of the Soviet Union (1949).