Первый слайд презентации: HOW DOES A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WORK ?
Student : Ryabov Dmitriy AVT-28. Teacher : Yurieva Anna Valentinovna.
Слайд 2: what is a nuclear power plant?
A nuclear power plant (NPP) is a complex of technical structures designed to generate electrical energy by using energy released during a controlled nuclear reaction.
Слайд 3: What does a nuclear reactor consist of?
To understand the principle of operation of a nuclear reactor, and therefore the principle of operation of a nuclear power plant, you need to understand the components of the reactor.
Слайд 4: Active zone
This is the zone where the nuclear fuel (heat separator) and moderator are placed. Fuel atoms (most often the fuel is uranium) perform a chain reaction of fission. The moderator is designed to control the process of fission, and allows you to conduct the desired speed and strength of the reaction.
Слайд 5: Neutron reflector
The reflector surrounds the core. It consists of the same material as the moderator. In fact, this is a box, the main purpose of which is to prevent neutrons from leaving the core and getting into the environment.
Слайд 6: Coolant
The heat carrier must absorb the heat that was released during the fission of fuel atoms, and transfer it to other substances. The heat carrier largely determines how the nuclear power plant is arranged. The most popular coolant for today is water.
Слайд 8: The principle of operation of a nuclear power plant is based on a chain reaction of fission of atoms of a radioactive substance – uranium. This reaction occurs in the core of a nuclear reactor
After the start of the nuclear reactor, the fuel rods are removed from the fuel Rods, which prevent the uranium from reacting. As soon as the rods are extracted, the uranium neutrons begin to interact with each other. When neutrons collide, there is a mini-explosion at the atomic level, energy is released and new neutrons are born, a chain reaction begins to occur. This process releases heat. Heat is given to the heat carrier. Depending on the type of heat carrier, it turns into steam or gas that turns the turbine.
The turbine drives an electric generator. Computer sensors monitor the process. After either uranium atoms or gas with coal have released heat, the operation patterns of nuclear power plants and thermal power plants are the same. Steam turbine
But before being released into the atmosphere, the air from the NPP premises passes through a system of complex filters, where most of the radionuclides are removed. Short-lived isotopes decay before the gases reach the top of the pipe, further reducing radioactivity. As a result, the contribution to the natural radiation background of gas-aerosol emissions of nuclear power plants into the atmosphere is insignificant and can be generally ignored. Therefore, nuclear power is one of the cleanest in comparison with other power plants. In any case, all radioactive emissions from nuclear power plants are strictly controlled by environmentalists and ways to further reduce them are being developed.