Homonyms are words which are identical in sound and spelling, or, at least, in one of these aspects, but different in their meaning. Classification -homonyms -homophones -homographs
Homonyms proper identical in pronunciation and spelling. Ex. : pit (яма)- pit (косточка) ball( мяч)- ball( действие) Homophones are words of the same sound form but spelling and meaning are different. Ex.: peace (мир)- piece( кусок) night (ночь) -knight (рыцарь)
Homographs are words different in sound form and meaning but identical in spelling. Ex. : bow (лук) -bow (поклон) row (ряд)- row (шум, ссора)
Слайд 5: Classification of homonyms (by Ginsburg )
Ginsburg classified all cases of homonymy into full and partial. Ex. : a seal (тюлень) -to ( put a ) seal (поставить печать) There are words belonging to the different parts of speech. Ex. : a seal-seal I seal. He seals.
In such case we speak of partial homonymy. Full homonyms can be found in the same parts of speech and partial homonyms belong to different parts of speech. By the type of meaning homonyms can be с lassified into : -lexical -lexico-grammatical -grammatical
-So, our « seal » and « seal » are an example of lexical homonyms because they are different in lexical meaning -If we compare « a seal » and « to seal » we shall observe the difference in lexical and grammatical meaning. As a result this are lexico-grammatical homonyms. -So, in modern english there are a lot of grammatical homonyms.
Ex. : the form of Past Tense and the form of Participle II : Ask-asked This are grammatical homonyms. Lexico-grammatical homonyms may be subdivided into 2 groups : 1. Identical in sound form but different in grammatical and lexical meaning. Ex. : a seal- to seal 2. Identical in sound form, different in grammatical and partly-different in lexical.
Ex. : a paper (бумага, обои, документы, деньги, научный доклад) -to paper (клеить обои, заворачивать) The sources of homonyms : There are 2 main sources : 1.diverging meaning development 2.convergering sound development of 2 or more different words 1.When the different meanings of the same word move so far away from each other that they cant to be regarded as two separate units Ex. : flower (цветок) -flour (мука)
2. Some words which were phonetically distant Ex. : old english eac-modern I old english eaz-modern eye Became identical in pronunciation. One of the most debatable problem is how to distinguish homonymy and polysemy. The answer is based on the semantic criterion. So, if a connection between the different meaning is apprehended by the speaker-we are talking about polysemy.
Otherwise, it is the case of homonymy. Ex. : 1.A child's voice is heard 2.His voice is annoyingly well-bred In the voice contrast the active is unmarked form Ex. : 1.Voice may be defined as : sounds of speaking or singing 2. sounds of speaking and singing 3.the definition of the voice 3 : the form of the word which express the relation between subject and action.
That’s why voice 3 is an homonym to polysemantic words –voice 1 and 2. Intralinguistic relations of words are basically of 2 types : -syntagmatic -paradigmatic Syntagmatic relations define the meaning of the word posses, when it is used in combination with other words in the flow of speech.
Ex. : He got a letter He got tired He got to London Paradigmatic relations are those which exist between individual lexical items, between vocabulary groups like synonyms, lexico- semantic groups and others. Ex. : to get -can be understood if we compare its with the other synonyms : to get, to obtain, to receive. So, that is why context is very important. The term « context » denotes : the minimal stretch of speech determing individual meaning of the word. Context can be subdivided into : -linguistic (-lexical,-grammatical) -extra- linguistic
In lexical context : Ex. : heavy 1. Heavy table means of great weight 2. Heavy storm means abundant 3. Heavy industry means the large kind of smth. This examples show us that the main factor is understanding of the meaning is the lexical meaning of words with which « heavy » is combined
Grammatical context –is the syntactical structure of the context that determines various meanings. Ex. : the verb « to make » -the meaning is « to force »- can be found in semantic structure -to make smth -to do smth -to become (to make a good teacher)
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Extra-linguistic context There are cases of the meaning the word in determine by the actual speech situation in which the word is used. Ex. : the noun ring May posses the meaning : -jewelry -a call on a telephone Extra-linguistic context is a context of situation