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Have you ever had personal experience of cybercrime or malware ? cybercrime hacker malware
Read the dialogue. Who has a problem with their phone: Freya, Archie or both? Explain your answer. possible answer How is have pronounced? Underline the past modal verbs
Underline the past modal verbs in exercise 1. Read the Learn this! box. exercise 1 past modal verbs
People must have lived in Siberia in prehistoric times. Должно быть, люди жили в Сибири в доисторическое время. You are absolutely certain that something is true. 99% People may / might have lived in Siberia in prehistoric times. Вероятно, люди жили в Сибири в доисторическое время. You think something has a good possibility of being true. 50% People can / could have lived in Siberia in prehistoric times. Возможно, люди жили в Сибири в доисторическое время. There is a possibility that something is true. NB: This form is not as strong as might or may. 25% People can’t / couldn’t have lived in Siberia in prehistoric times. Не может быть, чтобы люди жили в Сибири в доисторическое время. You are absolutely certain that something is NOT true. 0%
Find two more sentences in the dialogue in exercise 1 which could be expressed using may/might/could have. Rewrite them with the correct past modal verb. 1 2 You may/might/could downloaded some malware onto your phone. You may/might/could have been lucky.
might/may have could have should have must have ought to have can’t have shouldn’t have ought not to have 2 should/ought to have 3 may/might/could have 4 can’t have 5 must have 6 shouldn’t/ought not to have 7 must have 8 might/may/could have
I can’t find my camera. You couldn’t have lost it. You should have kept it in a safe place. You might have left it at school. Yes, maybe. I’ll look there tomorrow.
She didn’t get my email. You might have sent it to the wrong adress. You can’t have sent it to the right address. I’m sure I did. I checked before I sent it. You should have sent it to a different address.
My dad wasn’t answering his phone. He should have been at work. He can’t have taken his phone to work. But he always has it. He might not have gone to work.
Look at the following pictures and act out the dialogues. Make up as many sentences as you can using past modal verbs. What could happen to each person? to go downstairs to dig in the garden a possible answer - He must have dug in the garden. - No! He can’t have dug in the garden. He might/may have gone downstairs. He hurt his foot. 1
to play with a cat to try to pick up a cat The cat scratched her finger. 5
1 shouldn’t have lent 2 could have deleted your messages 3 must have sent that email 4 may not have dialled 5 should have turned 6 can’t have phoned
She can’t have / might have / must have left her phone at school. Or perhaps she left it on the bus.
There’s no pizza left. They can’t have / could have / must have eaten it all.
Juliet can’t have / may have / must have gone on holiday. She was at school yesterday!
I didn’t get your email. Do you think you can’t have / could have / must have sent it to my old email address? Where is your email???
Your watch probably isn’t broken. It can’t have / could have / must have run out of charge.
The school show is on YouTube. Our teacher can’t have / might have / must have uploaded it.
You went 130 km in less an hour? You can’t have / could have / must have driven very fast! 130???
Max isn’t replying to my texts. He can’t have / might have / must have taken his phone with him.