Презентация на тему: Grammar

Grammar
Grammar studies the formal properties of words and sentences
Theoretical Grammar
Theoretical Grammar. Application.
The Evolution of English Grammars
Prescriptive Normative grammars
Scientific descriptive grammars (Traditional Grammar)
Scientific descriptive grammars (Traditional Grammar)
Scientific descriptive grammars (Traditional Grammar)
Grammars of the XX century
Structural and semiotic postulates
Structural and semiotic postulates
Structural and semiotic postulates
Structural and semiotic postulates
Structural and semiotic postulates
F. de Saussure
F. de Saussure
Prague Linguistic School (Functional Linguistics)
Prague Linguistic School (Functional Linguistics)
American Descriptive Linguistics
American Descriptive Linguistics
Transformational and Transformational Generative Grammar
Transformational Grammar
Transformational Grammar
Transformational Generative Grammar
Transformational Generative Grammar
Transformational and Transformational Generative Grammar
The theory of deep structures
The theory of deep structures
The theory of deep structures
Semantic Syntax
Semantic Syntax
Semantic Syntax
Semantic Syntax
Textual linguistics and intertextual linguistics
Methods of Linguistic Analysis
Parsing (Traditional Syntactic Analysis)
Parsing (Traditional Syntactic Analysis)
The Oppositional Method
The Oppositional Method
The Oppositional Method
The Oppositional Method
The main notions
The main notions
Types of Oppositions
Neutralization of oppositions
Neutralization of oppositions
Application
Application
Application
Paradigmatic and syntagmatic Oppositions
Syntagmatic oppositions
Application
Application
Application
The Distributional method
Distribution
The Distributional method
The Distributional method
The Distributional method
The Distributional method
The Distributional method (Weak points-deficiencies)
The Distributional method (Weak points-deficiencies)
The Distributional method (Weak points-deficiencies)
The Distributional method (Weak points-deficiencies)
The IC Method (method of immediate constituents)
The IC Method (method of immediate constituents)
The IC Method (method of immediate constituents)
The IC Method
The IC Method
The IC Method Common Abbreviations
Diagramming The IC Method
Diagramming The IC Method
The IC Method (Advantages & Disadvantages)
The Transformational Method
The Transformational Method
The Transformational Method
The Transformational Method Application (I)
The Transformational Method: Application (II)
The Transformational Method Application (III)
The Transformational Method Application (IV)
The Transformational Method Application (V)
Application (VI)
Application (VII)
Application (VIII)
The Method of Deep and Surface Structures
Deep structures
The Method of Deep and Surface Structures Application
The Method of Deep and Surface Structures Application
The Method of Deep and Surface Structures Application
The Method of Deep and Surface Structures Application
The Method of Deep and Surface Structures Application
The Method of Deep and Surface Structures Application
The Functional Sentence Perspective Method (FSP)
FSP
FSP
FSP
FSP
FSP
FSP
The theme and The rheme
Communicative varieties of word order
Communicative varieties of word order
Communicative varieties of word order
Means of Rhematisation
The Componential Method
A semantic component
A semantic component
The Componential Method
The Componential Method
The Contextual Method
A context
Types of Contexts
Types of Contexts
Semantic agreement/disagreement
Semantic agreement/disagreement
Conclusion on Methods of LA
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Первый слайд презентации: Grammar

the study of the structure of human language books that set out rules governing language’s use

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Слайд 2: Grammar studies the formal properties of words and sentences

Morphology Describes how words are structured and formed How their constituents (morphemes) are classified and combined Syntax Describes how words are arranged and combined into phrases and sentences How phrases and sentences are classified and combined into larger structures

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Слайд 3: Theoretical Grammar

Helps to comprehend Ambiguity Intricacies Syncretism Acquisition of new meanings by the already existing forms

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Слайд 4: Theoretical Grammar. Application

My aunt’s murder (a play on the subjective and objective Genitive) In the beginning was the end (peculiar word order - rhematic) Crouched near broken house was …( absence of article) There was another rap at the door (rhematization- important information is placed at the end of the sentence )

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Слайд 5: The Evolution of English Grammars

prescientific period ( the end of the XVI th c. till the beg. of the XX th c.) prenormative (descriptive) grammar normative (prescriptive, demanding) grammar; s cientific period ( from the turn-of-the c. up to the middle of the 20th c.) with scientific explanatory grammar.

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Слайд 6: Prescriptive Normative grammars

prescribed, stated rules of grammatical usage prohibited wrong, improper constructions and forms set up (postulated) standards of correctness. Latin grammar served as a model for almost all European grammars

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Слайд 7: Scientific descriptive grammars (Traditional Grammar)

Henry Sweet did not proscribe anything He found what was widely used to be grammatically correct He defined general grammatical concepts, grammatical categories He anticipated Ferdinand de Saussure’s synchronic approach He proclaimed the priority of oral speech over written one.

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Слайд 8: Scientific descriptive grammars (Traditional Grammar)

Otto Jespersen (1860-1943), the Great Dane - a forerunner of structural grammar emphasized the correspondence of grammatical and logical categories proposed a symbolic representation of the structure of English proposed new techniques of linguistic description advanced the theory of ranks: subject and predicate → primaries, secondaries and tertiaries

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Слайд 9: Scientific descriptive grammars (Traditional Grammar)

criticized by newer grammars for its obscuring (ignoring) language itself as an intra-linguistic phenomenon focusing on logical and psychological (extra-linguistic) considerations, i.e. for its being meaning-oriented its being atomistic

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Слайд 10: Grammars of the XX century

language as a system where all elements are interdependent and interconnected Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913), a Swiss linguist, a pioneer in structuralism and semiotics contributed to the theoretical foundations of language studies “The General Course of Linguistics” (1916)

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Слайд 11: Structural and semiotic postulates

Language is a social phenomenon 2. Language is a structured system of signals or a sign system, consisting of linguistic signs, which are interdependent and interconnected

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Слайд 12: Structural and semiotic postulates

3. the system of language “ la langue ” paradigmatic, vertical aspect Paradigmatic relations are based on substitution the actual linguistic behaviour or manifestation of this system “ la parole ” (speech) horizontal linear syntagmatic aspect of language syntagmatic relations are based on co-occurrence

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Слайд 13: Structural and semiotic postulates

4. A study of language diachronic or historical focusing on historic change synchronic (descriptive) treating language as a self-contained system at a given moment of its existence. F. De Saussure

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Слайд 14: Structural and semiotic postulates

5. A linguistic sign is bilateral it has two aspects: form and meaning The relations between them are asymmetrical

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Слайд 15: Structural and semiotic postulates

Language is a system the elements of which are related by means of similarities and differences, i.e. (id est lat. – то есть ) oppositions oppositions on all linguistic levels - On the phonological level ( long vowels :: short v) On the morphological level ( plural :: singular) On the syntactical level (composite :: simple) On the lexico-semantic level (man :: woman)

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Слайд 16: F. de Saussure

revolutionised linguistics introduced structuralism as a method of analysis structuralism analyzes systems by examining the relations and functions of the constituents of these systems, be it a human language or a cultural process Modernism is opposed to Postmodernism as a system on the basis of following structural points: decentralization – centralization; changeability – steadiness; shifting time – linear time, etc.

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Слайд 17: F. de Saussure

affected highly the Prague linguistic school ( functional linguistics ) American linguists introduced Structural descriptive grammar Transformational and Transformational generative grammar

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Слайд 18: Prague Linguistic School (Functional Linguistics)

Vilem Mathesius, Roman Jakobson, Nikolai Trubetskoy the synchronic approach to linguistics over the diachronic, or historical approach It defined the phoneme in terms of distinctive features ( the smallest unit of speech that can distinguish one word from another ) bin-pin voicing is a distinctive feature of English

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Слайд 19: Prague Linguistic School (Functional Linguistics)

The theory of the phoneme The theory of oppositions and the oppositional method (N.Trubetskoy) The functional sentence perspective (or the theory of communicative dynamism) The theory of the asymmetry of a linguistic sign ( S. Karčevsky)

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Слайд 20: American Descriptive Linguistics

Leonard Bloomfield (the head), Charles Fries, Zelic Harris, Charles Hockett rejected the traditional techniques of linguistic analysis studied the non-alphabetical languages of Indian tribes (incorporative languages ) offered new procedures of description (arrangement, position, co-occurrence of linguistic elements) without resorting to meaning

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Слайд 21: American Descriptive Linguistics

Behaviorist Structural Grammar (L. Bloomfield ) language is just a form of behavior Linguistics should focus on linguistic performance study the behavior, distribution, arrangement, co-occurrence, structural characteristics of elements disregarding their meaning.

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Слайд 22: Transformational and Transformational Generative Grammar

Z. Harris (Pennsylvania) operations called transformations indicate links between various types of sentences and derive one type from another passives are derived from actives : equivalent in meaning but distant in structure

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Слайд 23: Transformational Grammar

Zelic Harris, Charles Hockett kernels and transformational rules for expansion and rearrangement of kernels Kernels are simple naked sentences: E.g. The sun shines ; She is beautiful ; I have a car; I read a book; There is a book on the table, etc. All possible sentences are derived from kernels

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Слайд 24: Transformational Grammar

connection between structure and meaning: Different structures can be identical in meaning E.g. Jim drinks beer=>Beer is drunk by Jim 2. Formally identical structures may differ in meaning: E.g. He made Mary a star, He made Mary a toy, which can be seen transformationally: ( He made a star of Mary, He made a toy for Mary)

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Слайд 25: Transformational Generative Grammar

N. Chomsky, USA, 1928, linguist, philosopher and intellectualist, professor of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) humans are equipped at birth with innate language faculty to acquire language, which is a specific neurological system These are rules that govern sequencing sounds into words and words into sentences

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Слайд 26: Transformational Generative Grammar

the shift from behaviorism to investigation into language and universal grammar language is not a form of behavior Linguists should focus on the underlying linguistic competence Generative grammar derives a surface structure from an abstract deep structure. Surface are observable structures Deep are underlying structures, they are logical structures of our brains – subject and predicate structures

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Слайд 27: Transformational and Transformational Generative Grammar

For Harris transformation relates to surface structure sentence forms: Jim drinks beer => Beer is drunk by Jim This transformation relates both structures, passive and active For Chomsky transformation is a device to transform a deep structure into a surface structure, to show the generation of infinite living structures out of a finite set of deep structures I have a car. She is nice.., etc,

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Слайд 28: The theory of deep structures

a method of analyzing and explaining the generation of surface structures E.g. He married young is a surface structure with a double predicate, the nature of which can be explained transformationally: He marries and =>He is young

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Слайд 29: The theory of deep structures

The sentence with a simple nominal predicate can be analyzed as comprising two deep structures : E.g. She a beauty?! => She is a beauty. =>It is not true.

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Слайд 30: The theory of deep structures

Genitive constructions with semantically different genitives can be analyzed as E.g.John’s arrival => John arrives, or John arrived, or John will arrive. the difference between a subjective and an objective genitive: Napoleon’s victory=> Napoleon wins a victory over smb; Napoleon’s defeat=> Smb wins a victory over Napoleon. ! Two identical surface structures may possess absolutely different meanings.

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Слайд 31: Semantic Syntax

Charles McCawley, W. Chafe, Russian linguists O.I.Moskalskaya and V.V.Bogdanov. describes sentences in terms of propositions, semantic structures (= deep structures), predicates and arguments.

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Слайд 32: Semantic Syntax

Relations between predicates and arguments are analysed in terms of deep cases : agentive case ( деятеля), objective case ( предмета), instrumental case (инструментальный), locative case (места), beneficiary case (получателя), etc.

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Слайд 33: Semantic Syntax

E.g. I open the door is a proposition It’s semantic structure is as follows : - the predicate is open ; - arguments are I and the door ; I and open are connected by the agentive case; open the door by objective case as the door is an object.

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Слайд 34: Semantic Syntax

E.g. The door opened. the door is logically an object, though grammatically it’s a subject, so that is an objective case. E.g. The hammer broke the window the hammer logically is an instrument, broke is the predicate, the window is an object.

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Слайд 35: Textual linguistics and intertextual linguistics

describe discourse, its generation and relations between sentences and texts

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Слайд 36: Methods of Linguistic Analysis

inventory of methods: Traditional method Oppositional method Distributional method IC method ( the method of immediate constituents ) Transformational method, 6. The Functional Sentence Perspective 7. Deep and Surface structures method 8. The Contextual method 9. The method of Componential analysis

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Слайд 37: Parsing (Traditional Syntactic Analysis)

dividing a sentence into the main and secondary parts by putting questions. at times inadequate: E.g. Flying planes can be dangerous What can be dangerous ? flying (a gerund used as a subject) planes ( flying is a present participle, which functions as an attribute)

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Слайд 38: Parsing (Traditional Syntactic Analysis)

E.g. Visiting relatives can be a nuisance (What? Which?)

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Слайд 39: The Oppositional Method

N.Trubetskoy to investigate phonology e.g. Russian and English vowels contrasted to each other as to t heir length → short and long ones ( not relevant for Russian) ! Russian and English vowels do not correlate as to length e.g. Consonants are contrasted as to voice being involved → voiced and devoiced ! Consonants do correlate as to voice in both languages

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Слайд 40: The Oppositional Method

based on discrepancy, antinomy or objective contrasts Life: harmony and disharmony of oppositions→ the basic law of dialectics

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Слайд 41: The Oppositional Method

Things contrasted to each other always have something in common, comparable basic likeness Chinese philosophers before Christianity, Jordano Bruno: “ Contraria sunt complementa ” i.e. contrary notions complete each other

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Слайд 42: The Oppositional Method

language a system of elements interrelated on the basis of their similarities and differences i.e. oppositions

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Слайд 43: The main notions

Opposition the root of opposition the marked member of the opposition the unmarked member of the opposition a distinctive feature neutralisation

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Слайд 44: The main notions

Opposition: a functionally relevant relationship of partial differences between partially similar elements The root of opposition: the basis of an opposition The distinctive feature distinguishes the marked member of the opposition from the unmarked one: table :: table s

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Слайд 45: Types of Oppositions

the number of constituents - binary - ternary - multi-element ones relations between constituents privative oppositions read :: is read (binary); 2. equipollent oppositions ( равноценные ) - both elements are marked went :: go :: shall go (ternary), man :: woman ; gradual oppositions fine – finer – the finest ( ternary); black :: grey :: dim :: vague :: clear :: bright :: radiant :: white (multi-element), ! can be reduced to a binary privative opposition e.g. black :: white

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Слайд 46: Neutralization of oppositions

The distinction between the marked and unmarked elements the unmarked element signifies what is meant by the marked element: I hear that he came:: I have heard that he came. Where have you been, what have you done, what brings you here

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Слайд 47: Neutralization of oppositions

E.g. He left which shocked everybody :: He left and that shocked everybody (subordination :: coordination)

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Слайд 48: Application

all domains of linguistics especially suitable for description of morphological categories binary relations are especially evident on the morphological level, which better reflects the structural organisation of a particular language

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Слайд 49: Application

English morphology - common case :: genitive case - perfect :: non perfect - active :: passive etc

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Слайд 50: Application

Grammatical categories in English: at least 2 forms standing in opposition e.g. read :: is read (voice) read :: is reading (aspect) read :: has read (correlation,perfect) boy :: boys (number) boy :: boy’s (case) fine :: finer :: the finest (degrees of comparison)

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Слайд 51: Paradigmatic and syntagmatic Oppositions

E.g. paradigmatic oppositions on the lexico-semantic level: synonyms and antonyms which belong to the same semantic field e.g. dawn :: sunset; left::right, etc. Semantic fields microfields Furniture: bedroom furniture :: office furniture

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Слайд 52: Syntagmatic oppositions

N.A. Shekhtman studied semantic relations between semantically reduplicated words in a context: 1) synonyms: E.g. Please :: delight is a semantic reiteration based on the gradual semantic opposition. 2) antonyms: E.g. Her hideou s face was unutterably beautiful with grief. 3) Words of absolutely different semantic fields: E.g.: How frail poem s are in a world burning with flowers.

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Слайд 53: Application

to analyze linguistic facts paradigmatically and syntagmatically on all linguistic levels: the phonological level voiced :: devoiced consonants consonants

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Слайд 54: Application

the morphological level N in the singular :: N in the plural ( table:: tables ); the lexico-semantic level words are semantically opposed ( man :: woman, singular:: plural )

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Слайд 55: Application

the syntactical level - one-member sentences :: two-member sentences - coordination (parataxis) :: subordination (hypotaxis), etc..

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Слайд 56: The Distributional method

describes environments of linguistic units ( morphemes, words, phrases), representing them symbolically: N – noun, A– adjective, T – article, V – verb, D – adverb

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Слайд 57: Distribution

the total of all the environments in which an element can occur; all occurrences can be symbolized : to make He makes me do it (NVNVtoN), He makes up for smth (Nvup for N), I make a present (NVTN), I make a bed (NVTN), etc.

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Слайд 58: The Distributional method

In each particular environment an element develops peculiar qualities. e.g. a morpheme modifies its qualities getting into various environments, variants - allomorphs: Phenomen a, gen ii, t eet h, childr en, tabl es, cat s, brush es concrete allomorphic representations of the morpheme of plurality; - abstract; unobservable deep structure

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Слайд 59: The Distributional method

morphemes standing in contrastive distribution jump :: jumped uncontrastive distribution learnt ::learned complementary distribution bed :: beds, house::houses, child:: children, etc. (plural )

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Слайд 60: The Distributional method

In syntax they compare distributional formulas or coded structures i.e. the distribution of a verb, e.g., can be represented by a set of distributional formulas (symbolic representations of concrete structures)

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Слайд 61: The Distributional method

Postulates to be observed: - if two or more distributional formulas are identical their meanings are identical; - if two or more distributional formulas are different their meanings are different.

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Слайд 62: The Distributional method (Weak points-deficiencies)

too formalized : one and the same distributional formula conceals different meanings: Semantically different structures I make a bed, I make a basket, I make a road, I make a promise → NVTN

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Слайд 63: The Distributional method (Weak points-deficiencies)

doesn’t reveal any difference between the structures Napoleon’s victory Napoleon’s defeat semantically different

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Слайд 64: The Distributional method (Weak points-deficiencies)

Semantically different structures - John’s eager to please ( NVbeAVto) - John’s easy to please (NVbeAVto )-identically coded

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Слайд 65: The Distributional method (Weak points-deficiencies)

mechanistic, form-oriented, ignores meanings ineffective when analyzing polysemy, homonymy, ambiguity, implicit syntactic relations, syncretism: E.g. The syntactico-semantic syncretism of the element greyly in the sentence The rain falls greyly remains unrevealed

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Слайд 66: The IC Method (method of immediate constituents)

Leonard Bloomfield (the head of American Descriptive Linguistics) aims at describing any complex form ranging from long sentences to multi-element words in terms of their constituents

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Слайд 67: The IC Method (method of immediate constituents)

The form is divided into two parts, the remaining parts are also divided into parts until ultimate indivisible pieces are arrived at: un][gent]le][man][ly

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Слайд 68: The IC Method (method of immediate constituents)

The main requirement on the morphological level: - ultimate constituents (or at least one of them) recognizable as morphemes : book||let ; let - a diminutive suffix ham||let (a small village)

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Слайд 69: The IC Method

Proceeding from the intuition of a native speaker, L.Bloomfield analyzed the sentence Poor John ran away in the following way: Poor ][ John // ran ][ away

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Слайд 70: The IC Method

The main requirement of the method on the syntactical level: - ultimate constituents should be words

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Слайд 71: The IC Method Common Abbreviations

nominal phrase - NP the finite verb-phrase — VP noun - N and verb - V adverb – D Adjective – A Sentence – S Article - T Preposition – P Pronoun - I

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Слайд 72: Diagramming The IC Method

the candelabra division (1) Poor John ran away └---------┘ └------┘ └--------┘ the derivation tree division (2) S / \ NP VP / \ / \ A N V D Poor John runs away

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Слайд 73: Diagramming The IC Method

(weak points) S / \ NP VP / \ / \ T N V D The rain falls greyly. The word greyly semantically refers to the noun rain, but the diagram doesn’t show it

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Слайд 74: The IC Method (Advantages & Disadvantages)

shows the derivation of a sentence, but formalized, mechanistic disregards meanings and can’t be employed to analyze polysemy, homonymy, ambiguity, implicit syntactic relations, syncretism

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Слайд 75: The Transformational Method

based on the following notions: a kernel the simplest elementary subject-predicate structure with explicit grammatical relations; transformation : a process of rearranging elements in syntactic structures with meanings being kept unchanged;

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Слайд 76: The Transformational Method

transformation rules - addition (adding elements); - deletion (cutting elements out); - substitution (replacing one element by another one in the same position); - permutation (replacing elements: putting from the beginning into the end and vice versa) : John drank his beer => the beer was drunk by John; - r ecategorization ( changing the category of an element: verbalization of a noun, nominalization of a verb, etc)

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Слайд 77: The Transformational Method

Postulates : if two or more structures are transformed identically, their meanings are identical; if two or more structures are transformed differently, their meanings are different.

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Слайд 78: The Transformational Method Application (I)

a broad sphere of application clarify relations between structures; reveal semantic similarities and differences between structures; disambiguate ambiguous structures; reveal covert information from implicit relations, etc.

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Слайд 79: The Transformational Method: Application (II)

Transforming identical Genitives we reveal their internal differences: Napoleon’s victory => Napoleon won a victory over someone ( subjective genitive ). Napoleon’s defeat => Somebody has won the victory over Napoleon ( objective Genitive ). A Soldier’s uniform => a uniform habitually worn by a soldier ( descriptive genitive ). Children’s bedroom => the room for children ( destination Genitive ). John’s arrival => John arrives, John arrived, will arrive ( temporal Genitive )

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Слайд 80: The Transformational Method Application (III)

disambiguate ambiguous structures : E.g. The King’s portrait => The King has a portrait of somebody. The King has a portrait of himself. The King has drawn a portrait of somebody. Somebody has a portrait of the king, etc.

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Слайд 81: The Transformational Method Application (IV)

interpret syntactic homonymy: Vanessa is impossible to help. => It is impossible to help Vanessa. Vanessa is anxious to help. => *It is anxious to help for Vanessa. John made her a present. => He made a present to her. John made her a star. => He made a star of her.

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Слайд 82: The Transformational Method Application (V)

more powerful→ reveals hidden implicit relations between the constituents of a sentence The rain falls greyly => the rain is falling and it is grey

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Слайд 83: Application (VI)

interpret double predicates : E.g. The moon rose red => the moon rose and it was red. Rose is an explicit predicate and is red is an implicit one. describe a predicate of double orientation : E.g. He is said to have come he to have come - a Subjective with the infinitive construction, he - a subject; is said to have come - a predicate of double orientation as to have come refers to the subject and is said refers to a subject beyond the border of the sentence => they say that he has come

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Слайд 84: Application (VII)

analyze neutralization between coordination and subordination: E.g. He married early which surprised everybody => Him married early and that surprised everybody a complex sentence with an attributive clause is transformed into a compound sentence, the semantic difference between them being neutralized

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Слайд 85: Application (VIII)

analyze predicative constructions with infinitives, gerunds, participles A simple sentence carrying a predicative construction with a non-finite form of the verb can be analyzed into a complex sentence with a subordinate clause where the formerly non-finite form is presented as a finite form functioning as a simple verbal predicate : He heard music coming from the room inside => he heard that the music was coming from the room inside. He was happy with the whole universe to improve => he was happy because he was to improve the whole universe.

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Слайд 86: The Method of Deep and Surface Structures

N. Chomsky the notions of deep and surface structures A surface structure A deep structure observable unobservable

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Слайд 87: Deep structures

a purely logical structure, underlying a surface structure; revealed transformationally; simple, subject- and- predicate structures, roughly comparable with kernels ; Underlying surface structures, they convey semantic relations which are deeply hidden.

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Слайд 88: The Method of Deep and Surface Structures Application

as large as that of the TM One surface structure can be analyzed in terms of several deep structures to reveal explicit and implicit predicative lines: E.g. The invisible God has created the visible world => The God is invisible. The world is visible. The God created the world.

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Слайд 89: The Method of Deep and Surface Structures Application

identical structures, feeling their semantic differences E.g. John is eager to please => John pleases somebod y; John is easy to please => Somebody pleases John ;

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Слайд 90: The Method of Deep and Surface Structures Application

2. the nature of the double predicate E.g. The moon rose red => The moon rises. The moon is red. In the second transform the formerly implicit predicate red is made explicit

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Слайд 91: The Method of Deep and Surface Structures Application

3. the nature of the predicate of double orientation E.g. He is said to come => They say. H e comes. We see that the two parts of this predicate refer to different subjects, one of which being beyond the borders of the sentence under analysis

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Слайд 92: The Method of Deep and Surface Structures Application

4. semantic and syntactic syncretism E.g. It is dark and raining => It is dark. It is raining. The former is - an explicit link- verb and the latter is - an implicit auxiliary, forming a continuous form

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Слайд 93: The Method of Deep and Surface Structures Application

5. the mechanism of ambiguity E.g. Flying planes can be dangerous => A plane flies. It is dangerous. I fly a plane. It i s dangerous; The king’s portrait => The king has a portrait of somebody; The king has a portrait of himself; The King draws a portrait of somebody; Somebody draws a portrait of the king, etc.

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Слайд 94: The Functional Sentence Perspective Method (FSP)

The syntactic structure of a sentence is in part determined by the communicative function of its constituents, that is the FSP

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Слайд 95: FSP

dividing a sentence с e into two sections: the starting point of the statement (the theme) ; the new information (the rheme) for whose sake the sentence has been uttered or written.

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Слайд 96: FSP

studies an objective distribution of information among the elements of the sentence, the actual division of a sentence ( актуальное членение предложения ) into the theme and the rheme

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Слайд 97: FSP

The Greek terms “ the theme ” and “ the rheme ” the earlier terms “ the logical subject ” and “ the logical predicate ” to avoid wrong associations

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Слайд 98: FSP

"psychological subject" and "psychological predicate", proposed by the German scholar H. Paul lies beyond the sphere of linguistic investigation

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Слайд 99: FSP

The terms "lexical subject" and "lexical predicate“- Prof. A. Smirnitsky take the whole problem out of the sphere of syntactic study and to include it into that of lexicology

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Слайд 100: FSP

the interrelations between the grammatical structure of a sentence and its functional organization, its communicative dynamism the system of means to thematize and rhematize sentence elements 3. varieties of word order

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Слайд 101: The theme and The rheme

the first element of a sentence, usually the subject; carries thematic, i.e. known, familiar information; the thematic elements tend to the beginning of the sentence the final elements (predicates, objects, adverbial modifiers) carry rhematic, i.e. new or important information. the rhematic elements strive to the end

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Слайд 102: Communicative varieties of word order

thematic word order rendered by the model theme – transition – rheme John has written a letter

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Слайд 103: Communicative varieties of word order

2. rhematic non-emotive word order rheme – transition - theme A woman entered the room The indefinite article is a signal of new information

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Слайд 104: Communicative varieties of word order

rhematic emotive word order rheme –transition – theme Strange his wife was to him Normally the predicate and predicatives do not precede the subject, but if they do, they become rhematic

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Слайд 105: Means of Rhematisation

To rhematise the subject: 1. Put it in the final position by inversion E.g. Followed a complete silence. Dort komt eine Dame. 2. Turn an active construction into a passive one E.g. A letter was written by John. 3. T ransform a simple sentence into a complex one with a complement clause E.g. It’s John who has written a letter.

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Слайд 106: The Componential Method

a logico-linguistic method of decomposing the semantic content of a word or a grammatical form into the smallest units of sense ( semantic components, semantic markers, semes, or SCs) Generative Semantics the content sphere of language

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Слайд 107: A semantic component

the smallest indivisible unit of sense comparable to elementary particles in physics. e.g. “ bachelor ” - a human being - a male - maturity - in a state of being unmarried

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Слайд 108: A semantic component

e.g. “ to giggle ” - an action - a female - young - a concrete emotional reaction associated with young females

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Слайд 109: The Componential Method

not quite adequate by itself superimposed upon other methods ( the Transformational method and the contextual analysis)

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Слайд 110: The Componential Method

semantic varieties of the genitive case: Possessive Genitive e.g. Mary’s hat => Mary has a hat; 2. Subjective Genitive e.g. Napoleon’s victory =>Napoleon is a victor; 3. Objective Genitive (e.g. Napoleon’s defeat => Somebody has won a victory over Napoleon); Genitive of Destination (e.g. The women’s magazine => The magazine is for women); Ambiguous Genitive (can be interpreted as a Subjective or an Objective Genitive: e.g. A mother’s love )

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Слайд 111: The Contextual Method

Professors V.V. Vinogradov, I.V. Arnold, I.R. Galperin, N. Amosova, N.A. Шехтман, Palmer, M. Halliday

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Слайд 112: A context

an immediate environment of a linguistic unit, which actualizes, semantizes, desemantizes, hypersemantizes or disambiguates it

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Слайд 113: Types of Contexts

Distance between the elements immediate Reference to reality Extralinguistic (situational) distant linguistic contexts ( structure) phrasal sentential supraphrasal the context of discourse;

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Слайд 114: Types of Contexts

the character of constituents lexical lexico-semantic lexico- grammatical length macrocontext microcontext

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Слайд 115: Semantic agreement/disagreement

based on logical agreement / disagreement expresses itself in the presence or absence of similar semantic components in the contents of the words or forms combined or juxtaposed.

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Слайд 116: Semantic agreement/disagreement

Of semantic components between the semantic structures of the words combined the semantic content of a word and that of its form

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Последний слайд презентации: Grammar: Conclusion on Methods of LA

None of the methods, taken isolatedly, is sufficient to produce an adequate linguistic analysis. All the methods covered complement each other. Only a synthesis of them can result in a reliable analysis of linguistic units.

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