Презентация на тему: GERMAN CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHY (PART I)

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GERMAN CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHY (PART I)
Content of the lecture:
Europe at the end of XVIII century
Introduction
Classical German philosophy
Prominent German philosophers Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
Kaliningrad (former Konigsberg)
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
Cathedral in Kaliningrad
Museum of Kant
Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (1775-1854)
F.W. Schelling
Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1772-1814)
Johann Fichte
Recommended readings:
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Первый слайд презентации: GERMAN CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHY (PART I)

Lecture # 10

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Слайд 2: Content of the lecture:

Introduction Classical German philosophy Prominent German philosophers: I. Kant F.W. Schelling J. Fichte Recommended Readings

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Слайд 3: Europe at the end of XVIII century

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Слайд 4: Introduction

The end of XVIII and first half of XIX century characterized by absolutely domination of German classical philosophy German classical philosophy considered the top of the development of philosophical thought of Modern Times

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Слайд 5: Classical German philosophy

Interest in the theory of knowledge (epistemology); Interest in ethical issues; Desire to develop a universal (absolute) laws of the world and of human thinking; High scientific level of philosophical works

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Слайд 6: Prominent German philosophers Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

Kant spent all his life in Konigsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia) He was head of the philosophy department at the university, and later became its rector Two periods of Kant biography: 1. Subcritical (up to 1770) 2. Critical (from 1770)

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Слайд 7: Kaliningrad (former Konigsberg)

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Слайд 8: Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

1. Subcritical (up to 1770) Kant started work as a scientist He formulated the hypothesis of the solar system, the influence of the moon on the tides 2. Critical (from 1770) Kant has nascent interest ( қызықшылық білдіру/ проявлять интерес ) in the problems of philosophy In 1780 appeared his works: "Critique of Pure Reason," "Critique of Practical Reason" and "Critique of judgment” ( Критика способности к суждению )

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Слайд 9: Cathedral in Kaliningrad

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Слайд 10: Museum of Kant

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Слайд 11: Immanuel Kant

The main question for Kant – how to know the “thing in itself”? "Things in itself" are the objects and phenomena of the world They exist objectively, that is why, independently of human consciousness ( сана / сознание ) According to Kant, everyone is trying to find the essence of "things in itself"

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Слайд 12: Immanuel Kant

In the process of learning this phenomenon, individual goes through 3 stages: 1) At the stage of perceptual ( сезімдік / чувственног о ) learning based on testimony ( көрсету / показания ) of the senses: smell, color, etc.) knowledge are chaotic and not systematic 2) At the stage of learning through reason and experiences with the help of space and time ( birth / native / innate) category the knowledge becomes systematic and not chaotic

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Слайд 13: Immanuel Kant

3) At the stage of rational knowledge a person tries to go beyond the evidence of the senses, space and time. Man tries to give a definition of general concepts, consciousness, God, matter However, a person will face persistent ( тұрақты /постоянны й ) antinomies - mutually contradictory propositions ( түсіндіріс / суждение ) on the subject (For example: God is a God or not) Kant's conclusions : It is impossible to understand the essence of "things in itself" with a clear mind and innate category

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Слайд 14: Immanuel Kant

It is possible to understand the essence of "things in itself" only with high morality (practical reason) and ethics People should not depend on the testimony of the senses, and innate categories Kant created the original theory of knowledge and ethical teachings At the core of his teachings were the ideals of humanism

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Слайд 15: Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (1775-1854)

F.W. Schelling was a student of Kant). His contribution in the development of philosophy was to create a theory of nature - natural philosophy The main idea of his ​​teaching: in the nature all phenomena are in constant and increasingly complex development Thus Schelling began to develop the dialectical method

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Слайд 16: F.W. Schelling

Dialectic (from the Greek word - the art of debate, conduct reasoning) Dialectics is a method of reasoning in philosophy The dialectical method is a method of theoretical thinking, revealing the contradictions in the content of this thinking

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Слайд 17: Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1772-1814)

He was also a student of Kant He was an outstanding representative of subjective idealism All the phenomena of the world he saw through the interaction of the "I" (the thinking subject, the bearer ( иеленуші / носитель ) of consciousness) and "Not I" (everything around individual) Absolute 'I' is the maximum knowledge about the world

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Слайд 18: Johann Fichte

But this ideal, according to Fichte unreachable: solving a task, a person thinks that he came close to this ideal, then it raises a new problem, and the ideal extended to infinity Fichte formulated the idea of ​​infinite progress of human knowledge That was his contribution to the development of philosophy

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Последний слайд презентации: GERMAN CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHY (PART I): Recommended readings:

1. В. Лейферт. Немецкая классическая философия. − http://philosoff.ru/rus/philosophy/history/deutche/nemeskaj_k91.shtml 2. Волков С.Н, Здоровьева М. В. Философия: электронное учебное пособие. − http://www.kampi.ru/info/studentam/filosofia/fil_book/l_7.htm 3. Гулыга А.В. Немецкая классическая философия. − М.: Айрис-пресс, Рольф, 2001. − 416 с. 4. Кант И. Сочинения: В 6 т. − Т. 6. − С. 167, 195,201, 214, 176. 5. Философия: Учебник / Под ред. проф. В.Н. Лавриненко. − M.: Юрист, 2004. − 520 с. 6. Фихте Г.И. Избранные сочинения. − М., 1916. − Т. 1. − С. 259. 7. Шеллинг Ф.В.И Система трансцендентального идеализма. − М., 1936. − С. 162.

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