Презентация на тему: General myology

General myology
General myology
The Functions of Muscles
3 types of muscle tissue
General myology
General myology
General myology
General myology
Skeletal striated muscle
Skeletal striated muscle myofibre ( myofibra )
General myology
Functions of skeletal muscle
Basic muscle structure
Basic muscle structure
The parts of muscles
Classification of skeletal muscles by form
Classification of skeletal muscles by movement
Classification of skeletal muscles by number of joints
Classification of skeletal muscles by the direction of movement
The work of muscles
General myology
Special muscle structures
Fasciotomy
Special muscle structures
Special muscle structures
General myology
General myology
General myology
General myology
General myology
General myology
General myology
General myology
General myology
EMG (electromyography)
Functional muscle test
General myology
Homework
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Первый слайд презентации: General myology

Anastasiia D. Koniaeva, a teaching assistant of anatomy department

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Myology  is the study of the  muscular system, including the study of the structure, function and diseases of muscle Muscles are the active part of the locomotor system

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Слайд 3: The Functions of Muscles

generation of movements stabilization of the position of the body control of the volume of the organs smooth muscle – sphincters motion of the substances in the body-blood, lymph, urine, air, food and fluids, sperm generation of body heat voluntary and involuntary contractions of skeletal striated muscle

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Слайд 4: 3 types of muscle tissue

Smooth muscle tissue ( textus muscularis levis) Striated muscle tissue ( textus muscularis striatus ) Cardiac striated mucle tissue ( textus muscularis striatus cardiacus ) All tipes of muscle tissue convert the chemical energy of ATP into the mechanical energy of motion.

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Eis, Jelínek, Špaček, Histopatologický atlas, Praha 2006 Smooth muscle

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Eis, Jelínek, Špaček, Histopatologický atlas, Praha 2006 Cardiac muscle tissue

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Eis, Jelínek, Špaček, Histopatologický atlas, Praha 2006 Skeletal striated muscle – longitudinal section

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Eis, Jelínek, Špaček, Histopatologický atlas, Praha 2006 Skeletal striated muscle – transverse section

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Слайд 9: Skeletal striated muscle

Myoglobin (pigment causing red colouring ) Fibres Quick quickly fatigued light (white) in superficial layers Slow more resistant to tiredness dark (red) in deeper layer Inervated by cranial and spinal nerves without inervation non-functional and atrophies

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Слайд 10: Skeletal striated muscle myofibre ( myofibra )

Elementary structural unit Multinucleated thickness: 10–100 µm length: mm – cm origin: merging of elongated mononuclear cells ( myoblasts ) → myotubes (nuclei inside, myofibrils at the surface) → conversion to myofibres (nuclei at the surface, myofibrils inside) sarcolemma on the surface striated in the microscope lighter and darker sections

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http://www.baileybio.com/plogger/?level=picture&id=264 http://www.bms.ed.ac.uk/research/others/smaciver/Myosin%20II.htm

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Слайд 12: Functions of skeletal muscle

Movement of animal body 2. Control of body openings and passages "maintain continence“ 3. Generate heat by shivering 4. Body support and maintenance of posture

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Слайд 13: Basic muscle structure

striated muscle fibres special muscle structures primary muscle bundle 10-100 fibres connected and covered by fibrous tissue secondary bundles connection of primary bundles and covering by fibrous tissue bundles of higher orders

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Слайд 14: Basic muscle structure

fibrous tissue endomysium ( perimysium internum ) covers myofibres and bundles epimysium ( perimysium externum ) = fascia covers the whole muscle tendon ( tendo ) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension. aponeurosis ( aponeurosis) myotendinous junction (junctio myotendinea) connection of myofibres with first (originating) and inserting tendon

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Слайд 15: The parts of muscles

origin ( origo ) mobile end ( punctum fixum ) head ( caput musculi ) belly ( venter musculi ) attachment ( insertio ) fixed point ( punctum mobile ) origin belly insertion

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Слайд 16: Classification of skeletal muscles by form

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Слайд 17: Classification of skeletal muscles by movement

agonists in the same direction acting muscles antagonists counteracting muscles synergists muscles participating in one movement (working together) main (principal) muscle one out of the group of synergists auxiliary (accesory) muscles they act together with the principal muscle

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Слайд 18: Classification of skeletal muscles by number of joints

one-jointed muscles they´re causing the movement only in 1 joint double-jointed muscles multiple-jointed muscls - they act mainly in the joint closest to the insertion

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Слайд 19: Classification of skeletal muscles by the direction of movement

flexor ( m. flexor ) makes the angle in the joint more acute extensor ( m. extensor ) makes the angle in the joint more obtuse adductor ( m. adductor ) moves the bone medially abductor ( m. abductor ) moves the bone laterally rotator ( m. rotator ) turns the bone around its long axis levator ( m. levator ) lifts up a part of the body depressor ( m. depressor ) drops down a part of the body pronator ( m. pronator ) helps with pronation supinator ( m. supinator ) helps with supination opponens ( m. opponens ) places the thumb against other fingers sphincter ( m. sphincter ) dilator ( m. dilatator )

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Слайд 20: The work of muscles

Dynamic -work in which muscles move parts of a person’s body, and the body moves in relation to a support, earth or water surface. Holding; Overcoming; Yield. Static work is observed while maintaining the positions of parts of the body. At the same time, there are no noticeable movements in the joints, there is no external mechanical effect. Holding items Holding the posture

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Punctum fixum is a point, which is not moving during a contraction of a muscle, ie it is fixed. If it is an origin of the muscle or an insertion of the muscle depends on the kind of movement. Punctum mobile is a point, which is  not  moving during a contraction of a muscle, ie it is fixed.

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Слайд 22: Special muscle structures

fascia ( = perimysium externum ) fibrous envelope of muscle or muscle group barrier for spreading of inflammation in that specific area osteofascial septum (= septum osteofasciale) fascial divider from the superficial fascia to the periosteum separates the space for muscle groups – compartment (compartimentum)

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Слайд 23: Fasciotomy

http://lifeinthefastlane.com/ortho-library/compartment-syndrome/

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Слайд 24: Special muscle structures

tendon ( tendo ) strip of tough fibrous connective tissue composed of bundles of collagenous fibrils connects the muscle to the bone peritenonium internum (covers the bundles) peritenonium externum (consistent envelope on the surface of the tendon) aponeurosis ( aponeurosis ) flat tendon mutually crossing bundles in layers tendinous sheath ( vagina tendinum ) space along the tendon lined by synovial membrane vagina fibrosa : surrounds the vagina synovialis, holds the tendons to the bone vagina synovialis epitenonium: inner layer (covers the tendon) peritenonium: outer layer mesotenonium: mutual switching of both previous things http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~biomania/tutorial/bonejt/jt01ac03.htm

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Слайд 25: Special muscle structures

bursae mucosae pouches in the vincinity of the joints, tendons and muscles lined by synovial membrane, filled up with synovial fluid reduction of rubbing in places exposed to considerable movement and pressure retinacula strengthened stripes of the superficial fascia tie the inserting tendons to the bone together with the skeleton create osteofibrous canal vincula mesotenonium of tendinous sheaths of the flexors of the hand vascular supply for corresponding tendons run through them vincula brevia et longa http://www.msdlatinamerica.com/ebooks/SurgicalExposuresinOrthopaedicsTheAnatomicApproach/sid139333.html http://www.blackburnfeet.org.uk/hyperbook/trauma/ankleFx/ankleFxBasic1.htm http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/bursa

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Слайд 35: EMG (electromyography)

detection of the superficial muscle or the intramuscular activity detects the change of ele c tric al poten t i al diagnostics for various muscle and neural malfunctions http://biomech.ftvs.cuni.cz/pbpk/kompendium/biomechanika/experiment_metody_emg.php http://www.fsps.muni.cz/inovace-SEBS-ASEBS/elearning/biomechanika/vyzkumne-metody-v-biomechanice

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Слайд 36: Functional muscle test

informs us about the muscle strength helps to assess the extent and location of the impairment analysis and examination of performance for the whole movement assessment – 6 grades 0 – no sign of contraction 1 – twich (not enough to do the move) 2 – very weak (movement in the whole extent, doesn´t overcome the resistance of the tested part of the body) 3 – weak (overcomes the gravity) 4 – good (overcomes medium-sized outer resistance) 5 – normal (very good function)

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Слайд 37

s pasm – involuntary contraction of one muscle cramp – painful spasm tetanus – m ultiple spasms of skeletal muscles t i c – involuntary twiches of muscles, usually under voluntary control t remor – r hythmical, involuntary contractions of opposite groups of muscles f asci culations – involuntary, short twiches on motor unit visible under the skin f ibril ace – spont aneous contractions of fibres of one muscle that aren´t visible under the skin Abnorm al contraction

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Последний слайд презентации: General myology: Homework

# Brightanatomy @ssmutomsk @salome_mee

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