Презентация на тему: G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018

G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
1. Identify the main types of nutrition in microorganisms
Classification of Nutrition in Microoganisms
Lithotrophs are Chemotrophs, they use reduced inorganic compounds as electron donors Energy from H 2 NH 3 NO 2 H 2 S
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
Nutrient Required for Growth
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
Types of AGAR Media
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
Liquid agar cultures of bacteria at the different stages of growth.
Serial Dilutions are used to reduce the number of bacterial colonies from liquid agar culture so they may be easily counted.
Spectrophotomer or a colorimeter measures transmission of light
Turbidity – the cloudiness shows bacterial growth
Turbidity affects absorbance
2. Describe the features of metabolism in microorganisms
Remember? Types of microbe metabolism
Physical Factors that Control Microbe Metabolism
3. Describe the features of the metabolism of microorganisms
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
Next Lesson – Practical I Set up a liquid culture of yeast for observation. Practical II Plate it on different nutrient agar dishes
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
3. Describe the methods for the preparation of permanent stains.
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
Terminology – Permanent Stain
The basic steps of a permanent stain (specimen)
FIXATION
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
DEHYDRATION & CLEARING
EMBEDDING
SECTIONING
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
MOUNTING AND STAINING
COMMONLY USED STAINS
HISTOCHEMISTRY
HEMATOXYLIN
EOSIN
MASSON'S TRICHOME
ORCEIN'S ELASTIC STAIN
WEIGERT'S ELASTIC STAIN
SILVER STAIN
IRON HEMATOXYLIN STAIN
PERIODIC ACID-SCHIFF
WRIGHT AND GIEMSA STAINS
4. Describe the structure and the working principle of the fermenter
Bacteria Dividing
Asexual Reproduction : Binary Fission
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
Microorganisms Standard Growth Curves
1. Answer the questions about growth curves.
Complete the following table for the two types of growth curves :
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018
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Первый слайд презентации: G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018

Learning Objectives 11.4.3.1 Identify the main types of nutrition in microorganisms 11.4.3.2 Describe the features of metabolism of microorganisms 11.4.3.3 Describe the methods for the preparation of permanent stains. 11.4.3.4 Describe the structure and the working principle of the fermenter Success Criteria

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Слайд 3: 1. Identify the main types of nutrition in microorganisms

What is aseptic technique? Why is it important to use when working with microbes?

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Слайд 4: Classification of Nutrition in Microoganisms

Carbon – Autotrophs – carbon dioxide Heterotrophs – reduced, preformed organic molecules Energy Phototrophs – light Chemotrophs – oxidation of chemical compounds (organic/inorganic) Electrons Lithotrophs – use reduced inorganic compounds as electron donors Organotrophs – organic compounds “mixotrophs: they can alter their metabolic patterns in response to the particular environment.

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Слайд 5: Lithotrophs are Chemotrophs, they use reduced inorganic compounds as electron donors Energy from H 2 NH 3 NO 2 H 2 S

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Слайд 7: Nutrient Required for Growth

Carbon – heterotrophs: glucose, fatty acids, alcohols, hydrocarbons… Nitrogen – organic: amino acids, peptides, proteins inorganic: ammonium salts and nitrates Water – chemical reactions Growth factors, Vitamins, Mineral salts – positive ions: calcium, potassium, sodium, B vitamins, some in TRACE (small) amounts Energy – chemical or light chemotrophs-chemical energy – glucose phototrophic – light energy: blue green algae bacteria Nutrients

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Video’s Aseptic Technique 6.0 min https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bRadiLXkqoU How to make Nutrient Agar 2.0 min https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YX_b02KYN9g Making a Streak plate 3.0 min https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0heifCiMbfY

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Слайд 9: Types of AGAR Media

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Слайд 11: Liquid agar cultures of bacteria at the different stages of growth

What is happening to the culture at time =5.5-10 hours? What the limiting factors a time = 4.5 – 5.5 hours ?

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Слайд 12: Serial Dilutions are used to reduce the number of bacterial colonies from liquid agar culture so they may be easily counted

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Слайд 13: Spectrophotomer or a colorimeter measures transmission of light

100 % Transmittance 0 % Absorbance 20 % Transmittance 80 % Absorbance Used to measure ‘turbidity’ concentration of bacterial in solution

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Слайд 14: Turbidity – the cloudiness shows bacterial growth

Turbidity and Sediment -death phase – dead bacteria precipitate out of solution Sterile Broth Significant turbidity -lots of bacteria Slight turbidity -some bacteria Dead bacteria

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Слайд 15: Turbidity affects absorbance

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Слайд 16: 2. Describe the features of metabolism in microorganisms

“Metabolism with respect to oxygen” 1. Obligate anaerobic bacteria 2. Obligate aerobic bacteria 3. Facultative anaerobes 4. Microaerophiles 5. Aerotolerant

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Слайд 17: Remember? Types of microbe metabolism

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Слайд 18: Physical Factors that Control Microbe Metabolism

Environment

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Слайд 19: 3. Describe the features of the metabolism of microorganisms

Temperature Oxygen Concentration pH Osmotic Condition Environment

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A – Temperature Cold 15C psychrophilic 25C psychrotrophs Warm 37C mesophiles Hot 60C thermophiles 95C hyperthermophiles Environment

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B. Oxygen concentration – METABOLISM Obligate aerobes – must have oxygen (aerobic) Facultative aerobes – prefer oxygen, but do fine without oxygen Aerotolerant anaerobes – don’t need oxygen, oxygen doesn’t bother them Obligate anaerobes – only no oxygen (anaerobic) Microaerophiles – low concentration of oxygen Environment Metabolism

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Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria can be Identified by Growing them in Liquid Culture ??????????????????????????????

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C. pH 5 and below - acidophiles 7 +/- 1 - neutrophils 9 and above – alkalphiles Environment

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Слайд 25: Next Lesson – Practical I Set up a liquid culture of yeast for observation. Practical II Plate it on different nutrient agar dishes

1- Nutrient closed petri dish 2- No nutrient closed petri dish 3- Glucose closed petri dish 4 – No glucose closed petri dish 5 – Nutrient open petri dish 6 - No nutrient open petri dish 72 hours in incubator or 72 hours covered in warm part of room.

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C. Osmotic conditions NaCl tolerant (+) halotolerant nanhalophiles NaCl required (15%) halophiles (15-30%) extreme halophiles Environment

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Слайд 27: 3. Describe the methods for the preparation of permanent stains

-What is a permanent stain? -How is a permanent stain different than a temporary? -What are some reasons for / against temporary / permanent?

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Слайд 29: Terminology – Permanent Stain

English Google Russian Fixation Dehydration Embedding Sectioning Staining/Mounting Aseptic technique Фиксация Обезвоживание Внедрение Секционирование Окрашивание / установка Асептическая техника

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Слайд 30: The basic steps of a permanent stain (specimen)

Fixation – treatment of tissue with chemical agent. Dehydration & Clearing – removal of water from tissue sample. Embedding – Infiltration of tissue sample with paraffin. Sectioning – Cutting tissue sample by section into specific equal increments. Mounting and Staining – Placing the tissue sample on adhesive glass slides.

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Слайд 31: FIXATION

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Слайд 33: DEHYDRATION & CLEARING

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Слайд 34: EMBEDDING

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Слайд 35: SECTIONING

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Слайд 37: MOUNTING AND STAINING

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Слайд 38: COMMONLY USED STAINS

Hematoxylin -Specialized stains that differentiate the fibrous components of the extracellular matrix. 2. Eosin – Stains that differentiate between acidic and basic cellular components. 3. Toluidine Blue - Metallic salts that precipitate on tissue forming metal deposits.

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Слайд 39: HISTOCHEMISTRY

Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) - Is a staining method used to detect polysaccharides (e.g. glycogen, glycoproteins, glycolipids and mucins in tissues. 2. Feulgen Reaction - Is used to identify chromosomal material or DNA in cell specimens. 3. Gomori-Takamatsu - a method for localizing the alkaline phosphatase enzyme. 4. Mordant - Is a substance used to set dyes on tissue sections by forming a coordination complex with the dye which then attaches to the tissue. It may be used for intensifying stains in cell or tissue preparations. 5. Counterstain - Is a stain with colour contrasting to the principal stain, making the stained structure more easily visible.

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Слайд 40: HEMATOXYLIN

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Слайд 41: EOSIN

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Слайд 42: MASSON'S TRICHOME

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Слайд 43: ORCEIN'S ELASTIC STAIN

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Слайд 44: WEIGERT'S ELASTIC STAIN

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Слайд 45: SILVER STAIN

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Слайд 46: IRON HEMATOXYLIN STAIN

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Слайд 47: PERIODIC ACID-SCHIFF

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Слайд 48: WRIGHT AND GIEMSA STAINS

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Слайд 49: 4. Describe the structure and the working principle of the fermenter

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Слайд 50: Bacteria Dividing

http://www.cellsalive.com/ecoli.htm

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Слайд 51: Asexual Reproduction : Binary Fission

Do you remember?

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Logarithmic or Sigmoid Exponential or J-shaped

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Слайд 53: Microorganisms Standard Growth Curves

Logarithmic or Sigmoid 1. It occurs when the resources are limited. 2. Population seldom grows beyond the carrying capacity of ecosystem 3. A stationary or steady phase is reached. 4. Population seldom crashes. Exponential or J-shaped 1. It occurs when the resources are abundant. 2. Population passes well beyond the carrying capacity of the ecosystem. 3. A stationary or steady phase is seldom achieved. 4. Population crashes ultimately due to mass mortality. 5. It has two phases, lag and log. 6. It occurs in fewer organisms, e.g., Lemmings, algal bloom.

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Слайд 54: 1. Answer the questions about growth curves

On the blank area of your Microbiology metabolism worksheet answer the following: “With respect to oxygen, explain the main forms of metabolism in microorganisms”.

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Слайд 55: Complete the following table for the two types of growth curves :

growth curve shows unlimited, unchecked growth growth limited by extrinsic or intrinsic factors shape of curve (S or J) shows carrying capacity for a population. typical of short term or long term growth exponential xxxx J short term logistic xxxx S xxxx long term Directions: For each of the following scenarios circle whether the population growth would best be represented by a logistic or exponential growth curve. a. a strep bacterium invades your throat and reproduces for 4 hours exponential b. the flea population on a rat is monitored for 5 weeks with flea powder added logistic c. loggerhead turtle populations are tracked for 5 years in the Atlantic logistic d. a lucky yeast cell falls into your glass of grape juice and reproduces for 10 hours exponential e. bull frog population in a local pond is monitored for 3 seasons logistic

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Последний слайд презентации: G11.4 Microorganisms and Biotechnology Pa rt 1 2017-2018

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YX_b02KYN9g

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